Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Cyberstalking and Internet Harassment - Then and Now The first federal prosecution of cyber harassment in the United State was in June 2004 when 38-year-old James Robert Murphy from Columbia, South Carolina, pleaded guilty to two counts of Use of a Telecommunications Device (the internet) with Intent to Annoy, Abuse, Threaten or Harass. According to investigators, Murphy was sending anonymous and uninvited emails to Seattle resident Joelle Ligon and to her co-workers as early as 1998. Murphy and LigonÃ had dated on and off from 1984-1990. As time went on, the harassment increased and along with dozens of obscene emails each day, Murphy also began sending sexuallyÃ explicit faxes to Ligon and her co-workers. Cant Get Away When Ligon moved to different states and changed jobs, Murphy was able to track her through malware he had placed on her computers and continue his attack. For over four years Ligon tried to ignore the messages by deleting them, but Murphy began making it appear that Ligon was the one sending the sexually explicit materials to her fellow workers. Murphy also had special email programs in order to hide his identity and he created the Anti Joelle Fan Club (AJFC) and repeatedly sent threatening emails from thisÃ alleged group. Ligon decided to start collecting the materials as evidence and went to the police who enlisted the help of the Northwest Cyber Crime Task Force, composed of the FBI, United States Secret Service, Internal Revenue Service, Seattle Police Department, and Washington State Patrol. The NWCCTF investigates Cyber-related violations including criminal computer intrusions, intellectual property theft, child pornography and internet fraud. She also managed to identify Murphy as the person harassing her and she obtained a court order barring contact. When Murphy emailed her, denying that he was harassingÃ her, he violated the court order. Murphy was indicted in April 2004 on 26 counts of sending harassing emails and other violations between May 2002 and April 2003. At first, Murphy pleaded innocent to all charges, but two months later and after a plea agreement was reached, he pleaded guilty to two of the violations. No Remorse From Murphy In court, Murphy told the Judge what he did was stupid, hurtful and just plain wrong. I was going through a bad patch in my life. I want to take my lumps and get on with life. In sentencing Murphy Judge Zilly noted that he was surprised that Murphy made no effort to indicate your remorse to the victim, to indicate you were sorry. The Judge noted that he had received a letter from Joelle Ligon unlike any he had ever received from a crime victim. In it Ligon asked the Judge to impose an effective and compassionate sentence. Judge Zilly decided to impose 500 hours of community service instead of the 160 hours requested by the government. Zilly also sentenced Murphy to five years of probation and more than $12,000 which was to paid to the City of Seattle to compensate the City for 160 hours of work time lost by employees dealing with the harassment. The Crime of Cyberstalking Continues to Grow It used to be that news reports such as Murphys case were an oddity, but with the increase of people managing several aspects of their lives online, both at work and in their personal lives, it has created a vulnerability that attracts criminals including cyberstalkers, webcam blackmailers and identity thieves. According to a poll released by Rad Campaign, Lincoln Park Strategies and Craig Newmark of craigconnects, a quarter of the American population has been bullied, harassed or threatened online and that number almost doubles for those under the age of 35. A third of the victims of online harassment are afraid that the situation may spill over into their real lives resulting in embarrassment and humiliation, loss of jobs, and many are scared for their lives. Reporting Online Harassment and Cyberstalking Many victims of cyberstalking do like Joelle Ligon did when Murphy first harass her, she ignored it, but as the threats grew she sought help. Today, it appears that the response by social networks and law enforcement is improving, with 61 percent of the reported cases resulting in the social networks shutting down the accounts of the offenders and 44 percent of reported cases to law enforcement resulted in an effort to track down the offender. If You Are Threatened Threats should never be ignored - report it. Keeping a record of the date and time of the threat, a screen shot, and hard copies is evidence. It not only can help authorities, social networks, ISPs and website host figure out the identity of the offender, but it also helps prove the level of the harassment which is the deciding factor on if, or if not, a complaint gets investigated.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
'French argues that 'An awareness of the impact of (national) culture on people in work organisations' is important in tod - Essay Example Furthermore, to compete in this globalized market, companies with cross border operation, commonly known as the MNCs are required to develop an ability that will help them to manage knowledge. Knowledge is imperative in international business principally because of the fact that it can reduce the managerial anxiety and uncertainty to a great extent. Along with that, new opportunities can also be identified with this approach. Levitt (1983) have stated that the importance of gaining knowledge about the subject of concern in more important if a company is operating in overseas locations. This knowledge can be in any form such as knowledge about the culture of the host country, consumer behaviour or it can be about the external environmental situation. In this project, the national culture of the country will be analysed and its impact on the business will be analysed. Furthermore, the study will also shed light on the significance of awareness of the impact of (national) culture of peo ple in work organizations in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. ... Holden (2001) argues that a company planning to operate in the overseas location should frame a flexible business model that has the ability to change in accordance with the local lawsuits and the situation of the market. Thus, it is evident that standardization versus adaptation approach is extremely vital in the international business process as it drives an MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to minimize the cost and respond to the demands of the local market. Bhagat, et al. (2002) in this respect have highlighted that national culture of a country has a strong influence on the decision of standardization versus adaptation for the management of knowledge. A number of research works carried out by Hofstede (1993) have shown that national culture influences the operations of a multinational corporation. For example, the areas which are mostly affected are marketing and communication practices and the human resource policy. In the similar way studies carried out by Bhagat, et al. (2002) have shown that the national culture of a country determines the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s activity pertaining to the management of knowledge, research and development activities, transfer of technology as well as the process of training. However, there is another set of authors who believe that the national culture of a country might also impact the knowledge management of an organization and therefore has a direct impact on the functioning of an organization. Takeuchi (2001) deems that with regards to the knowledge management convergence of approaches are evident among the companies. However, contradicting this point several researchers made it evident in their research papers that have not found any evidences pertaining to the differences in the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
7 - Coursework Example Daniel Rendelman claims that Ã «we can reason excuses for Bible believers to celebrate Halloween but the argument does no goodÃ¢â¬ . (Rendelman) The Church considers Halloween a satanic holiday Ã¢â¬â even the Ã¢â¬Å"trick and treatÃ¢â¬ tradition can be compared to the ritual of sacrifice to the dark forces. The Church also is trying to prove that Halloween causes in children anxiety, neuroses, psychical deviations, aggression, etc. D. Rendelman quotes the Bible when proving that Halloween should not be celebrated by the believers: Ã¢â¬Å"Test everything. Hold on to the good. Avoid every kind of evil,Ã¢â¬ 1 Thesalonians 5:21-22Ã¢â¬ . (cited from: Rendelman) Because the holiday of Halloween is of Celtic origin, and the Celts believe that the new life was born from the death and worshipped the demon Samkhain (Saman) that was the Lord of Death, the Church condemns the holiday and claims it is of evil character. It says that by wearing the costumes of the evil forces (the dead), people abide to the Satan who is the embodiment of the dark and the evil. Ã¢â¬Å"Halloween practices, from dressing in costumes to bobbing for apples, were once part of pagan worship. These actions are repeated today by people who are unaware or simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t care about their true meaning. Time may have passed but their origins and true purpose remains the sameÃ¢â¬ . (Rendelman) Other traditions of Halloween, such as various prophesies, magic rituals, fortune-telling, divination and others, are also, according to the Church, of Anti-Christian nature. Celebrating Halloween, the Church claims, often results in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s interest towards the Satanism and occultism. However, there are opinions that Halloween and the Church holiday of All Saints that is celebrated on November 1 are closely interconnected. Kenneth C. Davis in his article asks a question if Halloween is Ã¢â¬Å"a day of innocent merriment or a celebration of sinister forcesÃ¢â¬ and claims that the proof of both positions can be found in the course of
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Logistics and Operations Management - Essay Example Aggregate planning also enables planners to effectively make decisions concerning changes in employment, output rates, and inventory levels and back orders (Stevenson, Chuong 615). It also helps in the implementation of plans and prediction of changes in demand. Aggregate planning helps an organization in the budgeting process and in the synchronization of flow throughout the supply chain (Stevenson, Chuong 617- 618). The most common decisions variables for both manufacturing and service setting are short term decisions, intermediate decisions and long term decisions (Stevenson, Chuong 615). Long term decisions include where to locate the organization, its layout and product design. Intermediate decisions involve employment issues, subcontracting, output, and back orders. Finally, the short term decisions involve job assignments, order quantities, machine loading and work schedules. There are increased inventory costs due to the added expense. The other disadvantage is that there is an increase in idle time and overtime and this becomes very costly for the organization. In addition, the utilization of resources in the organization will keep on varying with time due to the instability in workforce ((Stevenson, Chuong 622)). By maintaining a level workforce, an organization increases morale of employees and this makes them to be more dedicated in their work. The process is also less disruptive to managers since they do not keep on hiring and lying off workers ((Stevenson, Chuong 622)). The process can sometimes be very costly especially the hiring and lying off of workers. There is the risk of hiring insufficient and unskilled workers which may result to poor job performance. Lastly, the job can involve a lot of paper work in the hiring and lying off workers and maintain their file (Stevenson, Chuong 622) The process provides for stability in the use of facilities and equipments in the
Friday, November 15, 2019
The consultants responsibility to facilitate client decisions Management consulting can be defined as the creation of value for organizations, through the application of knowledge, techniques and assets to improve business performance. This is achieved through the rendering of objective advice and/or the implementation of business solution (MCA 2009 as stated in Matthias 2011). Central to the notion of management consulting is the ability to identify a problem, research and recommend a solution and help implement that solution. The role of the consultant have become central to the life of many organizations, today the question isnt how many companies are using consultants but how many are not using consultant (Pellegrinelli 2002). However the role of the consultant and their impact on the decision making process in client organization has been the subject of many debates. This essay examines the role of consultant in decision making process of a client. The essay starts by looking at the role of the consultant as a facilitator of the client decision, without altering such decision. Then proceed to look at the role of consultant as an expert who can be seen as being responsible for the decision and outcome for the execution of project. Furthermore, the two distinct roles are considered side on side and we look at other approaches to decisions making in the consultant clients relationship. Facilitating Clients Decision Decision making is one of the most important management decisions, if not the most important of all management activities (Mintzberg 1989 as stated in Buchanan and Huczynski 2010). The consultant goal is to influence decision making in organization, therefore it is pertinent that the consultant understands how decisions are made in organizations. Wickham and Wickham (2008) suggests that there are three major decision making models in practice, the normative decision making model, the descriptive or the prescriptive model of decision making. Facilitation is the process of providing opportunities, resources, encouragement and support for a group to succeed in achieving its objectives, and to do this through enabling the group to take control and responsibility for the way they proceed (Matthias 2011, p6). Facilitation is a complex, iterative process which enables things to happen (Velden and Leenknegt 2006). At the center of process facilitation is the need to build relationship. The facilitator primary responsibility is to help client with process-type interventions to make decisions. The goal of process facilitation is to increase the client systems capacity for learning so that it can fix its own problems (Schein 1999). Here the decision-making and action lies predominantly in the hand of the client (Whittle 2006) with the consultant playing a passive role. Sometimes the consultants may deliberately enroll internal champions to create internal ownership of ideas (Fincham, 2002 as stated in Whittle 2006). Different authors have used different names in defining the role of the consultant as a facilitator including Schein who called it the process consulting model. He suggested that consultants are facilitators who help to empower the clients to solve his own problem and not own the problem. Similar to the process model is the role of the collaborator (Block 2000 as stated in Cameron and Green 2004). Also, Nees and Greiner defines a facilitator as the friendly co-pilot in their model (Appelbaum and Steed 2005), associating the knowledge based of the facilitator to business experience. The application of facilitation in practice however, depends largely on what level of change is required and organizational development. Sherwood and Callahan (2006) developed strategic process consulting where they used undergraduates to facilitate the changes in the strategic processes in two organizations with the client making the key decisions but at their level of expertise. Also, Ambler 2006 used a combination of part training/ part facilitation/ part consulting to engage in a consulting project that required managers in clients organization to take more responsibility. Both projects had to deal with facilitating changes in non-technical part of the business. However Stager (1986) and Cameron and Green (2004) argue that facilitation can be useful even in technical field like IT. There are different assumptions that the process model is built on; first, the client not only helps in making the diagnosis, they also benefit from participating in the diagnosis especially when the problem is a nontechnical one. Secondly, the client has helpful intent and has some problem solving ability, thirdly the client knows the form of intervention or solution that will work best in the organization because he or she understand contextual issues like power and politics in the organization. The clients problem solving abilities is improved upon as clients engage in the diagnosis of the problem and the selection and implementing the solutions (Rockwood 1993). Facilitation is useful when: there are Complex (unknown or conflicting) objectives, the process is complex, there are disagreements, buy-in is essential, multiple inputs are required, Ownership is required and lastly, managing hierarchical issue (Matthias 2011). Advantages of the facilitator model includes that it offers new approaches to solutions. Secondly, they are able to spot risk and focus on issues not agendas and, they are able to see potential for wider application NCAS (2006). Also the process consultation model is important for building long term relationships because it focuses on the future of the organization client and also helping to build the required expertise in the clients organization. Matthias (2011) suggests that the process consulting model is most useful in achieving long term result. Buckenmyer and Stough (1998) argue that the concepts of empowerment, participation and involvement are not always 100 percent positive. One consequence of unbridled empowerment can be dysfunctional organization. Also processes facilitation exposes clients to the risk of group think and group polarization which does not lead to the optimal solution being chosen (Buchanan and Huczynski 2010). Facilitation is more time consuming than content models (Stager 1986), and sometimes clients crave quicker and proactive intervention (Whittle 2006). Expert decision making The alternative approach to client consultant decision making argument is to understand when the client places the decision making powers to the consultant. The concept of consultant having decision making power or significant influence in decision making is plausible when the consultant plays the expert role. Edgar Schein developed content models which are divided into the purchase of expertise model and the doctor-patient model. Schein purchase-of-expertise and doctor-patient models are similar to Blocks expert and pair-of-hands roles of the consultant respectively. Appelbaum and Steed (2005) suggests that Scheins content models are similar to Nees and Greniers model for role of consultancy. They link the mental adventurer to the expert role, the strategic navigator, management physician and system architect to the doctor-patient model. The purchase-of-expertise model suggests that consultant needs to provide some type of expertise; this model allows the client to remove themselves from the problem (Rockwood 1993). This model is useful when the problem is straightforward and client organization does not possess the needed expertize (Schein 1978). In the expert role, the client delegates full authority to the consultant to plan and implement the changes. Decisions are made by the consultant on the base of his or her judgment, Client responds only when asked to. The goal is to solve the immediate problem (Cameron and Green 2004). The expert role is a specialist area (Witham and Witcham 2008) and requires technical knowledge Werr and Linnarsson (2001). However, the problem of the purchase-of-expertise model is that it places enormous responsibility on the client to diagnose the problem properly and the also difficult to use when the problem is tricky and difficult to diagnose and the consultant is not held responsible for wrong consequences (Schein 1978). It is doubtful if any expert body of knowledge exists in management realm (Williams and Rattray 2004), and the consultant doesnt know everything (Stager 1986). Another problem with the expert approach is that the client is distanced from the process of problem solving. They also downplay the role of power and politics in the client organization. In addition, placing decision making in the hands of the client may create a superior/inferior relationship, which is offensive to some clients (Stager 1986). Role of clients There is no doubt, that there exist different client roles in consulting project, however authors like Appelbaum and Steed (2005), Pellegrinelli (2002) argue that in reality the question of client is ambiguous and problematic. However, Schein (1997) proposes a model to understand different types of client relationship, he identified five types of clients: The first is the contact clients, the individual who is first contacted by the consultant; the intermediate clients, the individuals or groups who gets involved in different activities as project evolves; the primary clients, is the client who ultimately own the problem and they are the ones who are responsible for paying the consulting bills. The unwitting clients are the clients who will be affected but who are not aware that they would be impacted. The indirect clients are members of the organization who are aware that they will be affected but who are unknown to the consultant. Ultimate clients; are those whose welfare must be c onsidered, they include the total community and the total organization. This raises the ethical dilemma as the consultant needs to be able to manage the different types of clients and their different interest, influence and level of participation. Pellegrinelli (2002) suggests that facilitation model requires the consultant to be far more conscious of their various clients and stakeholders while the expert model, the interest of the senior manager commissioning the work tends to suffice. Also not all interventions are assumed to be helpful. The very presence of a consultant, and even mere data gathering changes things for the client/subject, and/or their stakeholder (Williams 2001). Also the fact that the facilitator does not own the problem raises the question of the contribution of the consultants (Wickham and Wickham 2008). Regardless of the mode of consulting employed, the consultant runs the dilemma of choosing between what needs to be done and what the paying client expects to be done (Williams 2001). In our understanding of the consultant roles and decision making, it is important that we identify who owns and makes the decision. Bartecko (2010) argued that the clients should not allow the consultant make decision for them, she attributes the failures of many projects to the lack of ownership on the project. The expert role can be susceptible to the risk of being used as rubber stamp and tools in the hand of senior management especially when making tough decision (Shapirro et al 1993). While the facilitator can also be used to push managements agenda to the group and the facilitator can manipulate the group (Matthias 2011) however, the purchase of advice can be interpreted as a sign of managerial ineffectiveness or if consultants renew the management concerns they were enlisted to lessen (Whittle 2006). Organisational Learning The knowledge and the learning objectives of the client have impact on what role the consultant wants to play and how it is received within the organization. One of the key requirements sought by clients is that the consultant must be knowledgeable (Minter 1994). The export model is seen as a specialist area and it is known to be technical (Wickham and Wickham 2008). The facilitator seems non-technical and deals with the soft skills in organization (Cameron and Green 2004). The authoritative leaders or expert can make the consultant appear arrogant and insensitive in the eyes of clients (Shapiro et al; Clark and Fincham, 2002 as stated in Whittle 2006). Werr and Linnarson (2001) also opine that the traditional expert role creates a dangerous situation where the client loses knowledge to the consultant making them dependent on the consultant. From the foregoing it is arguable that the consultant facilitating helps build and retain organizational learning. The lack of success in consul ting process isnt so much the lack of experience but not understanding what it is to help someone and not operating by those principles (Schein 1999). An example of the failure of the expert model of changing clients decision can be seen with the Nett positive, a Business Analysis consulting company from India taking on a project in FCMB a bank in Nigerian. Nett positive took the expert role and were trying to reintroduce an online performance management system which was the brief from the bank. However, they had two problems that beguiled the project, firstly they ignored the power and conflict in the organization and secondly they were seen to be protecting the interest of the contact client and not the primary contact. As the expert moved to try and develop the data needed as required by the client, the client decided to challenge the knowledge in-house to design the same system. So a cross functional team from IT, Finance and Sales was formed and given the mandate to design the task. Eventually the new performance management system was designed and the contract with Nett Positive was cancelled. Bridging the different Approaches While authors like Schein as stated in (Rockwood 1993) and (Velden and Leenkgert 2006) suggest that consultants decisions often time lie between facilitating and expert mode based on the situation and context. Schein however proposed that what is important is that all consultant and client relationship should be based on helping the client. Schumacher (n.d.) identified three new approaches to consulting. The first is the complimentary consulting which tries to integrate the expert and process consulting modes in a complete and cooperative manner. The integrated consulting was developed based on shared understanding of communication, feedback mechanism and reflection loops. However, the integrated approach does not have concrete realization in practice (Schumacher n.d.). The third modus of consulting is the client ownership-role of his problem and does not delegate to the consultant. The consultant only offers cooperation architecture and acts as sparring partner. However for long ter m stability of organizations, any model that places the decision in the hands of the client and the consultant as a partner is arguable better. Conclusion Facilitating client decision is all about the consultant helping the clients to make accurate decision. The strengths of the argument for the consultant facilitating clients decision is that the client was part of the process that developed the solution. On the other hand the consultant can change clients decision by taking on the role of the expert, in this mode the decision actually lies in the hand of the consultant however the effectiveness of this method is contentious. However the consultant that chooses to facilitate needs to be able to manage the different clients roles in the organization without being seen to be protecting the interest of any group. Facilitation helps the consultant to ensure that the client grows the knowledge required to make good decisions. Lastly the FCMB, net positive case was studied to see the failures associated with the consultant trying to change clients decision instead of facilitating it. This example further reiterates the fact that for long term sustainability and growth of the client-consultant relationship, the consultant should encourage facilitation instead of trying to change the clients decision.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Hawaiian Navigation How did the Polynesians find their way to Hawaii, over two thousand miles from any other land? Was it over population at home, or political turmoil? Whatever reason for leaving these people used amazing knowledge and skill of the ocean and of the sky to navigate them to this new land. They faced the unknown and braved into the wide-open ocean for long periods of time. The real focus in this paper is on the navigation techniques that they used in these voyages throughout the Pacific. It's impossible to teach someone the significance or the act of loving the stars and the ocean but that's what makes navigation without instruments (wayfinding) so beautiful. One can "give the heavens a meaning his own meaning" says Nainoa Thompson. Anyone can learn the aspects of navigation through personal observation and the study of charts and maps. Thus creative thinking and logic are two important skills in learning the ancient art of wayfinding. It is inspiring to think of how much water the Polynesians covered in the Pacific, over one million square miles, in a time frame of about 1000 years. Some members of the modern Hawaiian community were so impressed that they established the Polynesian Voyaging Society in 1973. They did some voyages throughout the Pacific without the help of instruments for scientific research and education. The topic was so interesting to so many people throughout the South Pacific that the voyages became more about recovering culture and about teaching the art of wayfinding so that it is not lost in time. Revival of Interest: A serious rebirth in Polynesian culture and traditions arouse after the voyages by the Hokule'a. In 1975 a replica of a Polynesian voyaging can... ... circumference. As long as people care about what's going on in the Polynesian revival of culture there will be growth. There will be energy left for people to search out the answers to our questions and the lost secrets of these amazing people who found these islands over 1,500 years ago. References: Baybayan, Chad, Kawaharada, Dennis. ( May 1996 ). Polynesian Voyaging Society Manuel. Honolulu, Hawaii: Polynesian Voyaging Society. Finney, Ben. (1994) Voyage Of Rediscovery. University of California Press. Kyselka, Will. (1987) An Ocean In Mind. Honolulu, Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. http://leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu/org/pvs/buildloa/html http://leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu/org/pvs/ohanabackground.html
Sunday, November 10, 2019
1.1 Background of the Problem The Enrollment System is a system by which the students transact business with the school, by knowing what section they belong through evaluating their grades by the teachers. In every year, it is expected that enrollees are increasing and the schedule of the enrollment system of the school is easier and reliable. Nowadays technology industry arises; each company needs to have its own computerized system that can manage their reports effectively. The team decided to conduct a study of their school Silway-8 National High School to enhance their knowledge and skills in computer regarding this Computerized Enrollment System. We will offer fast and accurate processing of enrollment system, implement a strong security in maintaining files and design a user a friendly interface. If this will push through, only this school in their district has this computerized system. The school will be pioneering of this program. We are looking forward for this program to install it earlier as long as po ssible. 1.2 Overview of the Current State of Technology Silway-8 National High School is one of the schools having big population located at Silway-8 Polomolok South Cotabato and establish on June 1987. Presently, it has 34 faculty staff and maximum of 1,350 students. And the school uses a manual system that takes a lot of time and effort. Since there are only one personnel assigned to each year level to accommodate students. They encountered problems too like experiencing flood and all the records are being gone. The chairman who is in charge will face a hard time about it. In this regard, this proposal, an Automated Enrollment System would solve the aforementioned burdens. This study serves as a total in so achieving a well-compiled data system as well as generating reports. 1.3 Project Rationale Computerized Enrollment System is design for the benefits of Silway-8 National High School. It helps the faculty in monitoring the records of the students. Automated Enrollment System is use to make the transaction fast, and accurate. It can display the records of each student through student ID number and all other information.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Metaphor essays The novel, The Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison, opens with the nameless narrator hearing the last words of his dying grandfather. Throughout the rest of the novel, the messages from his grandfather are omnipresent. They foreshadow his downfalls in the future. He is convinced by his parents to ignore his grandfathers words of wisdom by his parents, but his grandfather is right in the end. INSERT TEXT HERE. The narrator is not only a black man, but a black sheep. The narrator sees his education as his hope for the future. When he looks in the briefcase given to him by the superintendent he sees something. "It was a scholarship to the state college for Negroes. My eyes filled with tears and I ran awkwardly on the floor." The narrator could now afford to take his education further. Education is so important to the narrator because it raises his status above the other blacks, but when he tried to use the education he faltered. He feels as if he will be able to contribute so much to the world when he receives this scholarship from the superintendent. This gives the narrator a hope for the future. Towards the end of the novel, the narrator begins to realize the truth about his life. "I was and yet I was invisible, that was the fundamental contradiction. I was and yet I was unseen. It was frightening and as I sat there I sensed another frightening world of possibilities." ...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Obscenity in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world is a word that means many different things to many different people. Obscene is defined as that which is Ã¢â¬Å"disgusting to the sensesÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"abhorrent to morality or virtueÃ¢â¬ . Obscene material can include that which can incite lust, and also includes language regarded as taboo. Laws regarding obscenity vary by state, and cover everything from the sale of pornography to minors to using profane language in public. Most state obscenity statutes generally outlaw the sale and distribution of pornography to minors, the showing of pornographic material in public, and child pornography. Each state has a different statute and may or may not include other obscenity laws, depending on the demographics of that state. Obscenity laws are debated upon between persons; naturally each person has a different opinion of what is obscene or objectionable material. The main challenge lies in finding the Ã¢â¬Å"middle groundÃ¢â¬ in the field of the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, while maintaining integrity and providing safety for those who are not yet old or wise enough to deem what is obscene. The truth of the matter is that this Ã¢â¬Å"middle groundÃ¢â¬ is not easily identifiable. The Ã¢â¬Å"middle groundÃ¢â¬ in this scenario is closer to that of an extremely thin wire among the entire field of public opinions. The previously mentioned Ã¢â¬Å"extremely thin wireÃ¢â¬ has already been placed, but some think that it borders on repressing their rights to freedom of speech, yet some think it borders on violating morality and overall decency. Society as a whole naturally necessitates obscenity laws. These laws provide guidelines for those adults who might otherwise subject children to viewing or hearing material that could be disturbing to them. Furthermore, there is a certain amount of innocence that must be preserved in children. If children are exposed to profane language, nudity, or pornographic materials freely, or if they are themselves ... Free Essays on Obscenity Laws Free Essays on Obscenity Laws Obscenity in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world is a word that means many different things to many different people. Obscene is defined as that which is Ã¢â¬Å"disgusting to the sensesÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"abhorrent to morality or virtueÃ¢â¬ . Obscene material can include that which can incite lust, and also includes language regarded as taboo. Laws regarding obscenity vary by state, and cover everything from the sale of pornography to minors to using profane language in public. Most state obscenity statutes generally outlaw the sale and distribution of pornography to minors, the showing of pornographic material in public, and child pornography. Each state has a different statute and may or may not include other obscenity laws, depending on the demographics of that state. Obscenity laws are debated upon between persons; naturally each person has a different opinion of what is obscene or objectionable material. The main challenge lies in finding the Ã¢â¬Å"middle groundÃ¢â¬ in the field of the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, while maintaining integrity and providing safety for those who are not yet old or wise enough to deem what is obscene. The truth of the matter is that this Ã¢â¬Å"middle groundÃ¢â¬ is not easily identifiable. The Ã¢â¬Å"middle groundÃ¢â¬ in this scenario is closer to that of an extremely thin wire among the entire field of public opinions. The previously mentioned Ã¢â¬Å"extremely thin wireÃ¢â¬ has already been placed, but some think that it borders on repressing their rights to freedom of speech, yet some think it borders on violating morality and overall decency. Society as a whole naturally necessitates obscenity laws. These laws provide guidelines for those adults who might otherwise subject children to viewing or hearing material that could be disturbing to them. Furthermore, there is a certain amount of innocence that must be preserved in children. If children are exposed to profane language, nudity, or pornographic materials freely, or if they are themselves ...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Skin cancer - Research Paper Example This increase has been linked to increasing solar radiation exposure associated with tanning behaviors. The use of artificial tanning beds has also been implicated. Skin cancers can present as any kind of skin lesion such as an ulcer or lump, and can therefore be mistaken by the patient as a benign process. This often leads to a delay in presentation until the cancer has reached an advanced stage. Considering the significance of skin cancer and the significant research interest surrounding the strength of association between light exposure and skin cancer, this literature review has been conducted to discuss what is known by the medical community today about skin cancers. Objectives The objectives of this review are to discuss the etiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of skin cancers. Discussion Epidemiology The incidence of skin cancers, both melanomas and non-melanomas, has risen over the past 3 decades. Some experts proclaim that we are experiencing a Ã¢â¬ËrecordÃ¢â¬ â¢ number of newly diagnosed skin cancers (Riker, Zea and Trinh). Melanoma is the 6th most common fatal malignancy in the United States (Riker, Zea and Trinh). The young women demographic group, in particular, has the highest increase in cancer incidence noted (Woo and Eide). Melanoma is the second most common cancer in women 20 to 29 year old (Riker, Zea and Trinh). Studies show no link between sex hormones and melanoma risk (Coelho and Hearing), and young women are the most common users of indoor tanning beds (Woo and Eide). Therefore, this high cancer rate in young women is likely a reflection of the contribution of tanning beds to skin cancer incidence. Skin melanoma is a rare cancer compared to basal and squamous cell skin cancers, however it is associated with a much higher rate of metastases and mortality, and occurs more commonly in whites than other races (Society). Risk factors and Pathophysiology The ultraviolet (UV) component of solar radiation has traditionally been co nsidered an important Ã¢â¬ËcarcinogenÃ¢â¬â¢ for skin cancer. In the past few decades, the emergence of indoor tanning booths has emerged as another source of UV radiation exposure. Ultraviolet light has 3 components Ã¢â¬â UVA, UVB and UVC. UVB is the most strongly carcinogenic component, which also enhances vitamin D production in the skin (Coelho and Hearing). UVA is less carcinogenic, and UVC not at all. UV-induced DNA damage in keratinocytes can lead to pre-malignant changes in the skin such as actinic keratosis, solar lentigo, and dermatoheliosis. These lesions can, in time, develop into frank cancers (Stulberg, Crandell and Fawcett). The tanning industry, which is evidently responsible at least in part for the sharp rise in skin cancers, remains as a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide (Riker, Zea and Trinh). About 1 million American women use tanning beds regularly of which 70% are females between 16 to 45 years old. The number that uses excessive sun exposure for t anning is not known. Tanning beds were initially proclaimed to be non-carcinogenic as they emit mostly UVA. Also, the tanning UV exposure was considered beneficial for promoting vitamin D production in the skin. Eventually, however, studies demonstrated that tanning beds overall provided more UV radiation than the summer sun exposure. Fluorescent sunlamps were shown to provide up to 4 times as much UV radiation than
Friday, November 1, 2019
Steve Jobs - Essay Example He was named as Steven Paul Jobs. In the year 1960, the Jobs family moved to Santa Clara which is popularly known as Silicon Valley. By the age of thirteen, he managed to get a summer job at HP. He was extremely good at computers and his instructors in schools wanted to skip him several classes ahead, which his parents declined. His interest in computers developed at an early age and he was inspired by the machinist work performed by his father. b) Professional career sketch of Steve Jobs Jobs dropped out of college in the very first semester and went to India in quest of spirituality. At the young age of 21, Steve cofounded Apple Computers with Steve Wozniac and Ron Wayne. Jobs was responsible for marketing Apple Computers and Wozniac headed the technical department of Apple and they started selling affordable computer solutions to Americans. The Apple Computers were smaller in size and could be purchased by the middle class American people. The organization further developed Apple II which became more popular and this resulted in augmented sales by around seventy percent. By the year, 1980, Apple Computers became a publicly traded firm and registered a market value of USD 1.2 billion on the initial day of trading (BusinessNewsDaily, 2013). Individual 2 Moving out of Apple The next few years witnessed a downfall in Apple due to serious flaws in designs and disappointment by consumers. Along with this, Apple faced stiff competition from IBM which had registered augmented growth in sales as compared with Apple. The Macintosh was released by Apple in the year 1984 and it was effectively marketed as a machine which was youthful, romantic and creative. Despite registering favourable growth in sales with Macintosh, Apple was still not able to effectively compete with IBM. This was because the computers designed by IBM were far more superior as compared with Macintosh. Following this, the then President of Apple, Scully believed that Steve Jobs was not able to steer the organization to a path of growth and subsequently Jobs had to resign from Apple in the year 1985. He commenced a new hardware and software firm known as NeXT, Inc. The very next year, an animation firm was purchased by Jobs which later came to be known as Pixar Animation Studios. The animation film studio produced successful and popular animated movies like The Incredibles, Finding Nemo and Toy Story. In the year 2006, Pixar merged with Walt Disney Studios and Steve Jobs became one of the largest shareholders of Walt Disney. Back to Apple Pixar Animation Studio resulted as an extremely successful business venture. However, NeXT Inc., failed to achieve success and was eventually acquired by Apple in the year 1997. In the year 1997, Steve Jobs again became the CEO of Apple. The success of Apple in the 1990s is credited to the business acumen of Steve Jobs. He formed a new management team, imposed himself to a salary of $1 per annum and modified the stock options, thereby leading t he organization into a path of success (The Wall Street Journal, 2011). The consumers became awed by innovative design solutions like iMac, iPad, iPod and the like, stylish designs and excellent branding and marketing campaigns and sale of Apple products soared ahead. c)