Monday, September 30, 2019
Whenever change takes place, good and bad things happen in an organization. The management has the dice to roll on how to deal with such changes. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation will be affected especially those individuals who assumes that the management will get rid off them (Lawler, p. 157). When a company faces reduction in force, proper selection and guidance must be set. Result of reduction in force will cause the company with short-term and long-term consequences. Being the lead consultant, reduction in force will be the last resort to reconstruct the organization. To minimize or to come up with zero error can be attainable if proper line of communication is present. Since this is the main problem of the company, restructuring the way people communicate with other people from one department to another will be crucial. Every individual under the company needs to know that the company is working on the same goal (Termini, p. 186). Playing as one team with one spirit, proper coordination and communication are essential ingredients to keep on winning the stiff competition. Never fight with eyes close or else the opponent will easily know where to give their strong blows. The Essence of Proper Communication: Tool for Success People resist from change because of numerous factors that they will be dealing with. One is fear of loosing their vested interest with the current position. Individuals with anxieties guard off more what they can do with themselves than with the company (Reina and Reina, p. 7). The effects of changes with the company were not their concern but rather the implication of these changes with themselves. Another issue is, when there would be changes, rumours spread within the four corners of each department (Lawler and Rhode, p. 100). Misunderstanding takes place and people crumble more, leaving their work on a mess. Some may feel neglected while some may feel packing their things and headed on their way out. These reactions of people in an organization with regards to change are normal. Humans are bounded by intellectual and emotional abilities when stimulated by certain factors that will affect their desires. Employees of Pegasus have the benefit of realizing their potential because the company supports their way up. The company sets its benchmark in retaining its best people and allowing them to grow with the company. It is the main reason why people never leave Pegasus. Why waste this opportunity just because of miscommunication among departments? Communication is the answer and as much as possible, reduction will be the last resort to solve this problem. Employees of Pegasus set their lives with the company and itÃ¢â¬â¢s an asset which distinguished the difference of Pegasus from their competitors. There are approaches to cater the effects of change in an organization (Bahrami and Evans, p. 3). Proper education on people about the change effort beforehand helps employees to see the logic why the company needs to do such modification and alteration especially in communication. Participation of every division or department is an important element to transpire with positive effects of transformation. When there is a resistance to change, the management can have an arrangement to settle things. The company can offer incentive if projects will be completed at a given turn around time. There can also be a proposal that the department with much mistake will owe the rest of the team with an Ã¢â¬Å"after work dinner. This will enable each person within the company to loosen up. Casual talks involve in dinner party or any activity hosted by the company will enhance communication among its people. Such occasions allows people to mingle and rub elbows with other group of people. A friendly working environment makes people work with happiness in their hearts no matter how tough their assigned task is. It invites positive outlook in humans while working which allows optimistic drive to run through. A company needs to treat its employees not just a mere part of the team but most likely a part of the family. When one get hurts, everybody does.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
What are the Key success factors of Zara? Ã¢â¬Å"The ability to respond to customer requirements on a timely basis has always been a fundamental element of the marketing concept. Ã¢â¬ Martin Christopher et. al. Hence, it is important being proactive in a market such as the fast-fashion industry which Zara is operating in, time is always a crucial factor. The fast-fashion market, amongst other things, is characterized by short lifecycles, high volatility, low predictability, and high-impulse purchases. Therefore, it is very important for Zara to constantly have their products available for a potential customer in order to sell and earn more profit.Since the fast-fashion market is also constantly shifting and trends can be replaced over a night, there is a low predictability. This makes it a lot more difficult to compose accurate forecasts. In order to stay competitive in the market, it is important to take be aware of these types of factors mentioned above, and make sure you are no t left behind. One of Zara? s distinctive key success factors is their valuable and planned integrated logistics and supply chain management. This allows them to further develop and deliver a competitive marketing mix.In a marketplace where customers expect to find the latest designs that are still in fashion, Zara is an outstanding example of how to make that possible. It usually takes at least six months in the textile industry for an idea to be transformed into a product and reach the store shelves. By reducing the lead-time through efficient channel management, Zara has developed a vertical integrated business model, which allows them to change some parts of their inventory in only a couple of weeks. This strategy is nowadays known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Quick ResponseÃ¢â¬ (QR).The definition of QR can be described as; Ã¢â¬Å"A state of responsiveness and flexibility in which an organization seeks to provide a highly diverse range of products and services to a customer/consumer in the exact quantity, variety, quality, time, place and price, as dictated by real-time customer/consumer demand. Ã¢â¬ Neil Towers et. al The QR strategy allows Zara to create products that are inspired by the latest fashion trends from around the world through diverse media sources displayed to a broad public, leading fashion scenes, movies, bloggers, etc.By having products for a reasonable price with relatively high quality, Zara is one of the leading fast-fashion companies in the world. But, how does their company function to have this much success? One of the main reasons why Zara is so competitive is because they have suppliers that are strategically designed to fulfill their conceptual idea. Their conceptual idea is to supply trendy clothes, to a broad market, for a reasonable price. Almost 30 percent of the company`s suppliers are situated in either Spain or parts of Europe.The local presence of the manufacturing facilities within a short distance to many of their stores and hea dquarters, has allowed the company to be very flexible in a changing market. With high integration to the company? s suppliers, the products that are highly sensitive to availability and proactive response are mainly produced in Europe. They minimize costs and lead-time because of the local presence, which makes it possible to introduce new and fresh merchandise multiple times a year.Since, major parts of the production are situated locally, the products can reach the stores at the right time, meet the actual demand, and reach a higher sell-through. The other part of their product line that is not susceptible for seasonal change is outsourced to low-cost-labor countries in Asia. The combination of suppliers works as a competitive advantage. It promotes high-impulse purchasing from their new lines while still profiting for their basic product lines. Another key success factor is their pricing strategy.The company uses a market-based pricing strategy, which means that they design prod ucts at a fixed price according to what the costumers are willing to pay. All the costs to produce and deliver the product combined with the planned gross margin for profit are then calculated in accordance to the final retail price. Besides the pricing strategy, Zara also uses a market-oriented approach, which refers to being aware and predicting costumers hidden needs. As studies has revealed, the company only spends one percent of their annual turnover on advertising.They put most of their resources into using modern technologies, such as point-of-sales data collected from their stores as an effective communication tool. By regularly collecting POS-data, and translating the information into real demand and different consumption patterns, the company can deliver the exact quantity of merchandise, at the right time, to their stores. This activity minimizes the costs and results in higher profit, which can be used for other business activities such as expansion, product development and so on.Not to mention, it also makes it possible for the company to evaluate and predict which products that will have a shorter or longer product life cycle. Hence, will result in higher sell-through, quick elimination of products that are out of fashion, and replenishment of new merchandise. Another reason to why their internationalization has been so successful is the fact that their merchandize can be sold in many different parts of the world. Even regardless of cultural differences. One of the reasons is that their consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s love garments from the high-end market and Zara copies those garments at lower prices for their consumers.In some cultures the company is using adaptation tools. For example, each store manager is allowed to make slight modifications to the assortment to achieve a better match between supply and demand in certain countries. In addition, the location of the stores is another successful factor. Zara has chosen to position their stores in attractive and high-trafficked locations. Also, ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s stores are designed by professional store decorators in accordance to ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s business image. The interior of the Zara in Central for instance is very similar to other high-end fashion stores, which gives customers the same feeling as shopping in a luxury store.References Used the two articles posted by Dawn on FB Lectures Tutorials And: Retrieved on 2012-03-11http://www. google. com. hk/books? hl=sv&lr=&id=-9Ja0ZQ6gSMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA62&dq=market+orientation+and+supply+chain+management+in+the+fashion+industry&ots=0FiX4Yvyf5&sig=BoBe-KOlSiOaY6igTvN7NvyPVYM&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=market%20orientation%20and%20supply%20chain%20management%20in%20the%20fashion%20industry&f=false Retrieved on 2012-03-11 http://martin-christopher. info/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/CREATING-AGILE-SUPPLY-CHAINS-IN-THE-FASHION-INDUSTRY. pdf
Saturday, September 28, 2019
A cellular network A cellular network is a radio network made of number of radio cells, each severed by fixed positioned based station. These cells stations cover several different areas and provide large radio coverage. In order for this to happen a variable number of portable transceivers can be used in any cell and moved through one cell during transmission. The use of multiple cells means that if the distributed transceivers are mobile and moving from one point to another point they should change also from cell to cell. This mechanism could be different according to the type of network and change of circumstances. In this case clear coordination between base station and mobile station is must in order to avoid communication interruption. The most common example of cellular Network is a cell or mobile phone, which is a portable telephone that could be dialled or receives calls through base station or transmitting tower. Radio waves transfer signal to and from mobile phone. The coverage area of serv ice provider sometime is split into small cells in order to prevent signal losses and also a large number of active phones in the area. The range of signals could be different in cities and rural areas. All base stations are connected to mobile phone switches centre, which connect to a public telephone network or to another mobile company switch. As the mobile consumer moves from one cell area to another cell, the switch automatically commands the handset and a cell site with a stronger signal (reported by each handset) to switch to a new radio channel (frequency). When the handset responds through the new cell site, the exchange switches the connection to the new cell site. Modern cell phones networks use cell as radio frequencies are limited, shared resource, base stations and handsets change frequency and use low power transmitters in order that limited number of radio frequency can be used at the same time by many users with less interferences. To distinguish signals from a vari eties of different transmitters, frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA) has been developed. Advantage of cellular Network over other alternative solutions is: Increase capacity. Power usage reduced. Huge coverage area. Interference from other signals reduced. Reference paper 10 The evolution of the cellular Network started to flourish during the last years in which several different systems were developed; as a result we have first generation (1G), second generation (2G), third generation (3G) cellular networks and the trend is continuously increasing. The first generation (1G) was used from 1970-1980 and now is retired. In 1990 the second generation (2G) of Networks were launched such as Global System for Mobile communications (GSM), Personal Communications Service (PCS), and Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (IDEN) and so on. The second generation (2G) of networks replaced the (1G) and became very popular with digital processing, enabl ing wireless transmission of voice as well as data and have different Variety of new features such as a Push to Talk, Short Messaging service(SMS), caller ID, conference calling, voice mail, email messaging and so on.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Final Project - Essay Example The main components of a criminal justice systemare: law enforcement, prosecution, defense attorneys, courts and corrections, all of which play a major role in the process. Officers in law enforcement take reports when crime is committed in their areas of jurisdiction, they investigate the crimes while collecting and protecting evidence. They then may arrest suspects based on their investigations and give testimonies in court. Prosecution is composed of lawyers who represent the federal or state government during the court process. They receive evidence from law enforcers, review it to decide whether to keep or drop a case, present the evidence in court, they question the witnesses and negotiate plea bargains with the accused. Defense attorneys represent the accused against the case of the government and are either hired by the defendant or in cases where the defendant cannot afford an attorney, they are assigned by the hearing court. In courts, judges follow and oversee the proceedi ngs of a case, they accept or reject plea agreements, make decisions on whether to release the defendant before trial, and sentence offenders who are found guilty. In corrections, assigned officers superintend convicted offenders in prison, jail or while they are in the community on parole or probation. The correction officers ensure the safety and security of the facilities that hold offenders, they supervise offenders in daily activities and oversee the process of releasing inmates. At times, these officers prepare reports containing detailed background information on the offender to aid judges in sentencing and they notify victims in case of status change of the offender. Murder This refers to the criminal act of unlawful ending the life of another human being without any excuse or justification. It is regarded into three types depending on the seriousness of the crime: homicide which is the most serious, manslaughter which is less serious and justifiable homicide which is not re garded as a crime. Under US law, it is classified into either intentional murder, murder resulting from the intent to cause serious harm to another person, killing resulting from a depraved heart orextreme recklessness and murder committed by an accomplice during its commission, its attempt or flight from other crimes (Pollock, 2008). Depending on the circumstance surrounding the act, the convicted offender may be sentenced to many years in prison without the possibility of parole or death. Various states classify murders by degrees with the most common being first degree murder which is willful and premeditated, and second degree murder that is not premeditated(Jenkins, 2011). Discussion of Case Study Arrest The offender, James Lane was arrested by the police and charged with the murder of Lucy Lane and Rodney Hill based on the sufficient evidence uncovered (a six inch blade knife and clothes that were soaked in blood that matched the blood type and DNA of both Lucy Lane and Rodney Hill). The police officers would first read the offenders rights to him and state the charges on which he was being arrested. Due to the seriousness of the crime, Mr. Lane would be booked into police custody. His fingerprints and photo would be taken during the booking process and he would then be led into a cell in a holding facility. Court Within hours of his
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Research Methods - Essay Example The phenomenon for luxury goods has changed as there has been the emergence of Ã¢â¬Ënew luxuryÃ¢â¬â¢ products that are commonly consumed by the middle class. Conversely, Ã¢â¬Ëold luxuryÃ¢â¬â¢ products include brands like Dolce and Gabbana, HUGO BOSS and Louis-Vuitton are not as widely consumed as the Ã¢â¬Ënew luxuryÃ¢â¬â¢ among the middle income young consumers. In a nutshell, the Ã¢â¬Ënew luxuryÃ¢â¬â¢ products stand out among the consumers due to their emotional appeal and superior performance (Silverstein and Fiske, 2008: 35). This paper studies the online behaviour of male consumers between the ages of 25-28 regarding luxury. This section of the population has been observed to be mainly shopping for fashion clothing, electronics, fragrances, entertainment and cosmetics in the online market. Statement of the Problem In the past, luxury brands were for the few privileged shoppers, but now with the invention of online shopping and affordability consumption of these pr oducts has increased among the young males (GoMo News, 2013). Recent studies reveal carried out in the UK market that spending on luxury products has increased by 50 percent in the past ten years as compared to the7 percent increase in spending on basic goods (Keane and McMillan 2004: 30; Frost and Sullivan,2012). In addition to, the rising trend of online spending has resulting to numerous challenges and opportunities to the luxury brands (Goldsmith, 2002: 25; Eroglu et al., 2003: 140). It is therefore imperative for luxury brand mangers to get a comprehensive understanding of why consumers buy luxuries. It is important to note that consumers mainly in the age bracket of 25- 28 years buy to impress (Fan and Burton, 2002: 26; Martin and Turkey, 2004: 464). There has been an emerging view that there are two types of luxury good consumption, personally oriented and socially oriented and they should be considered in the online sales and marketing. The current study seeks to get an unde rstanding of the online behaviour of male consumers between the ages of 25 to 28 regarding luxury shopping. Aims and Objectives Consumer behaviour towards online shopping for luxury goods is highly dependent on age and gender. This is because the older generation views luxury differently from the younger generation due to the effect of the internet (Hauck and Stanforth, 2007: 175). This paper studies on the behaviour for male online shoppers between ages 25 to 28. Past studies have overlooked the motivational factors affection the consumer behaviour in the purchase of Ã¢â¬Ënew luxuryÃ¢â¬â¢ goods (Twitchell, 2003: 43; Parker and Schaefer, 2004: 176). The study will analyse the deep motivation factors including image, fashion and media. The paper looks at the shopping tendencies for male shoppers between the ages of 25 to 28 years for luxury goods in the online market and the motivational factors behind their decision making. Objectives To study how the gender and age affects the shopping tendencies of online male shoppers. To study the motivational factors affecting the purchase of luxury products by online shoppers in the UK. To give an understanding of the various internal psychological processes decision making with regards to the consumption of luxury goods. Research Questions Do age and gender impact on the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ perception of luxury products? Why do people in this age bracket opt for the Ã¢â¬Ë
The importance of obtaining patient informed consent to intervention in physical therapy practice - Essay Example The process of obtaining informed consent can be conducted as a single event or a series of multiple discussions in hospital wards, for inpatients or outpatients. This paper is determined to provide detailed information about the meaning of informed consent to intervention and the significance of obtaining patient informed consent to intervention in physical therapy practice. Additionally, it further describes how patient informed consent to intervention reflects the ethical principle of respecting the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s autonomy and its legal aspect. Valid or informed consent has history in ethical theory, law and clinical and research practice. Its determining factors in clinical theory include the disclosure of the information by a healthcare provider, understanding and consent from the patient and a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s competence and preconditions of voluntariness (Delany, 2007). On the other hand, the philosophical theory that underlines valid consent is the issue of autonomy that is defined as the self-rule or self-governance. This is the freedom of people to express individual preferences and aspirations, or the capacity of people to choose or reflect (Delany, 2007). Before a clinician or a therapist to approve a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s informed consent to be valid, he or she must ensure that the patient is competent; meaning that he or she must be of sound mind to make valid and correct judgments, which must also be voluntarily provided. Voluntariness can be enhanced by making a clear statement to the patient that he or she is part icipating in a decision-making process, but not merely engaging in a simple talk to receive a treatment. This is a significant means of making it clear for the patient that informed consent process is an invitation for her or him to participate in a healthcare decision-making process (Delany, 2007). Likewise, a clinician is also mandated to give a recommendation and share his thoughts with the patient.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
3.Account for the increasing number of children incarcerated in the UK. Is this an effective means to tackle youth offending - Essay Example The increase in incarceration is simply a result of more punitive sentencing and remand decisions. At the same time, depriving children of their liberty is ineffective in terms of preventing further offending, is expensive and does incalculable damage to young people who are already among the most vulnerable in society Ã¢â¬â a point tragically confirmed by the death of two children in custodial establishments during 2004.Ã¢â¬ (Narco, 2005, p. 1) It is clear from such observation that though there has not been any such change at the rate of criminal activities in the socio-cultural backdrop of the United Kingdom, but the administration, as it has witnessed through its previous experience that, random imprisonment of children helps in cutting the rate of criminal offence down, that is why they are still sticking to the system. Such random process of child incarceration, though its is considered to be effective but in real life is not only results in tremendous psychological probl ems to the youth section of the society but at the same time they are also exposed to the risk of being abused or molested by criminal minded persons. Consequently, they either remain as psychological patients for the rest of their lives or they develop extremely hostile mentality against the society that provides them also with a criminal bent of mind. Statistics of 2004 shows that 205 youths, who were below 15 years of age were taken under custody and three of them, namely, Gareth Price (16), Gareth Myatt (15) and Adam Rickwood (14), expired unfortunately during their tenure in the custody. (Narco, 5005, p, 1) Such incidents bear enough evidence to show that in the name of justice or controlling crime what actually is happening is exploitation of the youth force of a nation and the administration is actually dragging the youth section to such a situation, where they are not
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Evaluating Website's - Essay Example Even before this, though, they should realize that the information they are getting is only as good as the source providing it. By developing a strong sense of what comprises a credible website from those that are less credible; one can base important decisions such as which career path to follow on reasonably reliable information given through a strong website. There are a number of ways in which a website can establish its credulity, reassuring users that the information they provide is trustworthy. A three-year study conducted by Stanford University resulted in the development of 10 guidelines to use when evaluating websites (Fogg, 2002). The first guideline is to check to see if the information offered is backed up with third party sources and whether those sources are accessible. If they are, another guideline is to look at those sources to see if they, too, have some degree of credibility whether they are other websites or individual Ã¢â¬ËexpertsÃ¢â¬â¢ in their fields. A website with Ã¢â¬Ëin-houseÃ¢â¬â¢ experts should make this expertise known. If the website is offered by a reputable organization, with a real physical address and contact information, this also points to a more reliable source (Fogg, 2002). The organization should be easy to reach if the user has questions and the site should be easy to use rather than attempt ing to dazzle with confusing effects. The content of the site should be updated often, be relatively free of annoying promotional material and be free of spelling or other small errors. The Riley Guide meets much of these criteria. It establishes its credibility by claiming to have been in the business since 1994 and it provides information about the site author, Margaret Dikel. It also features a number of testimonials from businesses and competitors verifying its accuracy and usability. The site is comprised almost entirely of links that provide access to
Monday, September 23, 2019
Hospitality Event - Essay Example As the essay declares while dealing with current environmental issues, undoubtedly climate change is the most potential one. Climate change can be simply referred to as a permanent change in a regionÃ¢â¬â¢s statistical distribution of weather that occurs over a long period of time. Even though climate change is a natural process historically, nowadays man made causes outweigh the natural forces. Hence, the rate at which climate change occurs has been increased for the last two decades. The process of climate change has far reaching consequences on human life, agriculture, ecosystems, biodiversity, and the atmosphere This study stresses that more specifically saying, unscientific and careless waste management is another troublesome environmental issue facing the modern society. Majority of the industrialists and households are not aware of the application of proper waste management mechanism or its significance in promoting a sustainable environment. Hence, they dump waste materials including e-wastes in their surroundings, marshlands, and oceans. Such practices have wide range severe implications on the environment. Studies have proven that waste dumps significantly contribute to emission of greenhouse gases. Even though a number of Ã¢â¬Ëwaste to energyÃ¢â¬â¢ conversion technologies have been developed, improper waste management is still threatening environmental sustainability because people and businesses do not give much emphasis on waste management practices.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Economic cooperation Essay Talks on economic cooperation between China and the US ended with a Ã¢â¬Å"broad agreement on separate strategiesÃ¢â¬ to help their economies recover. The US agreed on inducing fiscal discipline from the personal until the federal level and China, to bolster domestic spending. The talks also resolved to cooperate in combating climate change by shifting to low-carbon economies as they progress and reinforce their current economic standing. The talks will make the political process focus on the economic strain and fiscal constraints as a new strategy to revive the economy for the US, and increasing government spending and relying less on foreign demand for China. Of course, these strategies could go under fire from some political opposition and criticism, but the backing of a foreign agreement could bolster support for both agreed positions for economic recovery both from the government and the grassroots. Policies and ordinances could be prompted to be enacted to follow through with the agreement with China and vice versa. Campaigns on the tightening of belts from the organizational to the individual level can be expected from the government. NGOs and other organizations can strongly advocate for these policies or criticize them either way. This agreement can make the government and the citizens work hand in hand to create a political environment where cooperation is paramount to dig the countries out of their financial pothole. The general direction of the talks, however is geared more toward the affirmation that a change in spending habits by the government, by the individual and by the organization should be limited and focus more on saving. Many would go toward this direction as the difficulties of the economic meltdown touch many people, forcing them to go for bargains if they canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford not to spend. China, on the other hand can be seen to use the same approach the US used during the financial difficulties in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. http://edition. cnn. com/2009/POLITICS/07/28/china. stimulus/index. html? iref=newssearch U. S. , China agree on economic strategies [July 29, 2009 Updated 1017 GMT (1817 HKT)]
Friday, September 20, 2019
Implementation And Advantages Transformational Leadership In Nursing Transformational leadership is a leadership approach that brings value and positive change to the followers with the ultimate goal of transforming those same followers into great leaders. Accordingly, this style of leaderships main goal is to convert the followers into great leaders, in addition to providing guidelines for success. The leader in this style, on all occasions, has words of motivation for the followers that heightens moral for the reason of producing a higher level of performance. There are many advantageous ways of inspiring the group. To begin with, the leader is to associate with the identity of the follower. By asking to questions: Who are they? What are their goals in life? What kind of background do you have? A transformational leader finds out all the pertinent information about their potential leaders and uses those specifics to generate the transformations. For this purpose, the leader is always perceived as a good role model to the group. The leader inspires them to be the best they can be and on all occasions, challenges them when needed. All things considered, the leader understands and is aware of all their weaknesses so the future leaders can be up for the challenge and optimize their performance. In conclusion, the followers of this style must possess charisma, idealized influence and stimulation, so the end result can be the finished task. This style promotes new direction that allows the followers to successfully execute the assignments on their own. Being a transformational leader is somewhat challenging but the rewards are endless. Laissez-Faire leadership is best defined as a non-authoritative style of leadership. Laissez-Faire, is French which means allow to pass, or let go. Accordingly, this leadership explains why the leaders possess no control, as they try to have the least amount of involvement as possible. The leaders maintain the belief that if people are left alone they will excel in their own time. Consequently, these leaders allow their team to be responsible for the own outcomes, with no intervention or assistance from management. The Laissez-Faire style is only effective if the members are skilled, prideful, experienced and highly educated. In addition, this style is not for employees who need constant supervision, and always need a pat on the back for a job well done. All things considered, in the interest of nurses, the majority of the time, nurses will have no leadership or direction from upper management. In the event of an emergency, there is no time for calling for assistance or direction. The implementation of the nursing process has got to be immediate with no intervention from management until problem has been alleviated. For this reason, this style is not effective for nurses that lack experience, are unable to function on their own and need constant interaction with their preceptor. The manager, as I stated earlier, is nowhere to be found, so you must be a self started and motivated by your own means to work with this style of leadership. The first quality of a good leader is that he has passion for the craft and challenges you to be the best that you can be at whatever you do. If things are made easy or handed to you, you will not work as hard to accomplish it. You are already aware of the outcome and it is always in your favor. A good leader challenges the highest level of ability and expects the best from you. He expects you to put your best foot forward, consequently rewarding you when you have done your best. A good leader always sets a good example because he leads by example. If your leader is unprepared, unmotivated, has no confidence and has lost his passion then you will be the same way. Your leader strives to be number one, because he expects the same determination from you. A good leader finds ways to keep his team motivated and you will benefit from his experience. In addition, a good leader offers a complete explanation of the job to be done, as well as clear and concise directions so that you will successfully do a great job the first time. A good leader wants his team to be successful with every task because that reflects back on him. A good leader praises a teams good work and offers ways to improve on the jobs that were not as successful. In any case, one of the traits of a good leader is he is always visible. In order to provide strong leadership he needs to have a strong visual presence with the workers. They need to see him in the middle of a task working alongside them getting the job done. He needs to be available for questions, comments and general discussions. He needs to be in the forefront so that the followers can have him at their disposal when needed. Furthermore, another trait of a successful leader is consistency. Keeping a working, supervisory relationship is the key. People will come to you for leadership and guidance and must receive direction consistency on a daily basis. Also, it is important not to let your personal feelings cloud your decisions. Stay focused on the situation or issue, not on any one particular person. Many times leaders are connected with some workers more than others. Leaders must never let the working relationships change their response. All employees musts be treated equally with the same amount of fairness and respect. Showing favoritism hampers the fluidity of the working process. Above all, leaders must include employees in the problems solving process. When leaders include their followers in the troubleshooting process, it makes them feel like an important part of the team. By keeping all lines of communication open, encouraging input for improvement and change, will set the team apart. The leader improves the team by listening to them, discussing and challenging their skills while complementing on jobs well done. Simultaneously, setting the tone for the work environment, coming from an optimistic leader, can excite and motivate the team to perform the best job possible. Confidence, exhibited by leadership, can be contagious, as employees feed off the tone set by leadership. A good leader is encouraged to show gratitude for a job well done, and encouraged to thank all whom were involved. Incidentally, many times leaders make mistakes they are human beings just like everyone else. They, like all people, are not perfect and will make mistakes, while the good leader admits to those errors. Every team member will have more respect for the leader if they are open and honest about all events. Honesty is always and forever the best policy. By the same token, sometimes leaders make the mistake of putting business before people. A good leader always make sure his followers feel like they are a active part of the team and that all the information they present is just as important as any other member. On the contrary, my preceptor Mrs. McKenzie is a wonderful leader. She is always ready to teach you something new and has the confidence that you will do a good job. She is a good leader because she does not have the Im the teacher, youre the student attitude. She is always open to suggestions and answers the many questions that I have for her each and every time I am in clinic. When there is a code or another stressful situation she never loses control. Mrs. McKenzie is full of useful information for both me and the doctor. Ms Angela, the charge nurse over the emergency room, seems cold and stuffy but when in action she wants the students to be involved in all aspects of patient care. She goes as far as informing the medical doctor on duty that they have a student and makes sure you are in the middle of everything that comes thru the emergency room. Correspondingly, on my clinical rotations, the most positive trait brought to my attention, is one of teamwork. When a new patient is admitted, no matter who is assigned to that patient, all the nurses converge on the room and make sure the core nurse has everything she needs. For this purpose, one nurse starts the IV, one nurse disrobes the patient, one nurse applies the ECG leads and the other starts the initial assessment along with the vital signs. Nevertheless, as the student, if you dont confidently move fast and be quick on your feet, you will miss out on all important experiences. Students need positive role models and feedback to make certain that what they see and experience in their nursing rotations, make them a competent nurse throughout their entire career. The nurses on my rotation worked like a well oiled machine and made sure that the patient as well as the family had all they needed and were comfortable with the care we were providing. Many things make you a reliable nurse but I believe proper training and education play a large role in being able to perform effectively, thus increasing reliability. The negative traits that I have observed is some nurses do not want to have a student or a nurse in orientation for that matter. They forget that at one time they were a student or a new nurse on the job. They just want to have less interference as possible to make their day go by. You are not allowed to ask them any questions or be in their patients room. I have observed nurses not always using the proper techniques for different duties around the hospital. They are not washing their hands between patients, not using sterile technique when necessary and sometimes just over looking hospital protocol all together. The one negative trait that I will never possess is that I will never be a nurse because of the pay. I will always be the kind of nurse that loves nursing and that is why I do it every day. I will never forget where I came from and treat someone like they are less than me because they work in a different area than me. I will never be the type of nurse that speaks negatively about a medical doctor or a nurse in front of the patient or anyone else for that matter. I will always have respect for my leaders in nursing even when they dont have it for me. However, I will be the nurse that pulls then to the side to try to get the problem worked out instead of working with hostility daily. All things considered, I am a transformational leader. I work well with others, am trained and highly motivated with everything I do. I love to see people do well under the title they work. I always try to be a good example and promote nothing but positive attitudes in the work place. I provide the guidelines and would allow the employees to do what they do. I like this style because it utilizes the skills that you know your employees already possess, that makes them into their own leaders. My peers come to me for advice on a daily basis because they know that I really have a no-nonsense attitude when I am working towards something. I offer strong but friendly words of advice and never sugar coat anything to them. When a plan needs to be made normally I am the one who implements the stages. To my friends I am a strong leader because I get it done and take no excuses. Now will that make me a good RN? I hope so, but time will only tell. An RN has to be a strong selfless leader who never turns down a challenge unless it is unsafe for the patients. Always ready to give the right information when needed and always learning new things every day. I was never given the opportunity to be the team leader, but had it happened I am confident I would have handled it in a very professional manner. I would have made sure that I referenced back to the BON website when I was unsure about delegation and my scope of practice as a nurse. My personal philosophy is I believe that nursing is a profession that uses the criteria Pavalko used to define the eight dimensions of a profession. It shows that nursing has relevance to social values, education, self-motivation, a code of ethics, commitment to lifelong work, a theoretical framework, and there is a common identity. Additionally, how the ADN prepared professional nurse has many roles, such as a caregiver, teacher, advocate, manager, colleague, and expert. It is my opinion nursing is a remarkably rewarding profession that consists of various obstacles that are triumphed over in order to pave the way for a rewarding and honorable future. There are many significant achievements accomplished by nurses in todays society including the values instilled in our social lives, as well as the education attained by individuals in order to seize the ability to give great care to the community. I believe it takes a unique type of person with a great deal of motivation and ambition to be capable of performing as a caretaker for others. It is crucial to believe in what you are doing by always using superior judgment, and by following the Code of Ethics in each decision you make in your working institution or at home with friends and family. Using the term Career in regards to nursing seems to be an understatement of my outlook on this astounding health care position, I have always considered this opportunity as a permanent gratifying commitment not on ly to myself, but to all of those whom rely on my specialized training and care for their well being. Although maybe not suitable for each person, nursing is a profession of choice for general public to apply themselves to if they so desire. There are numerous different regulations and system policies the nurses adhere to in order to maintain safety and quality care for all people. I believe nursing colleagues may be able to unite as one group with the same values in their trade in order to work harder on leading by example, and following each others strategies as well; furthermore, overcoming the obstacles of modern day traditional standards and excelling beyond the current generations outlook of the nursing profession. Nursing leadership and management is crucial in the foundation of nursing care. There is a direct correlation between leadership and quality of care. Ã Poor nursing leadership leads to poor patient outcome and, inversely, good nursing leadership leads to excellent patient outcomes. I believe that a profession has a commitment to a lifelong work because you get involved in your establishment. It is very hard for me to think of leaving the nursing field, or the hospital I work in now, because there are so many people relying on me for my knowledge of this hospital. I have grown attached to those I work for and with. The rules of this hospital differ from others and after familiarizing myself in such depth here I could not just leave in hopes of finding another place to be so comfortable or appreciated. However, in todays generation many nurses do not feel the same way. There are many nurses that choose to work short term in one hospital and then leave to work in another facility. Due to this constant battle for hospitals and other health care provider facilities to keep continuous adequate nursing staff, the United States has had to find other means of populating our health care systems. For instance, According to the American Hospital Association, 17% of hospita ls recruit from abroad to fill nursing vacancies. New Trends in foreign Nurse Recruitment, Texas Nursing Voice, April, May, June 2008. That says to me we really need to start more nursing schools and helping the people who are already working in the medical field to move up to nursing and make a solid career move. The most important thing I learned from this paper and from my clinical experience is that every member of the team really holds the same amount of importance. There is no one person that is more important than the other. If there is no team work involved there is no team. Being a good nurse not only takes excellent training but it takes compassion for the job. There is always something you can improve and many new things to learn. This new role is going to be somewhat of a challenge but with continued hard work I know I can get it done. I have learned to never be afraid of the unknown, just do your best to figure it out and make it work in your favor. In addition I learned that being a part of a team although very important, being an individual is even more important. Do not allow other peoples negative views cloud your judgment. As a new nurse everyone is trying to recruit you to their team or to their way of thinking. My preceptor has always told me to stand on my own two feet and whatever decision I make in my career I need to make sure that I am comfortable with it and that it satisfies the job. I have learned to always keep patient safety first and treat the patient as I would want a member of my family treated. Nursing is a rewarding profession physically, mentally and in spirit. Throughout my years in the nursing profession I have observed many challenging circumstances with a wide variety of remarkable people. All individuals, at some stage in their lives, will seek medical attention. During these times of need each person desires to find comfort in the ones looking over them. People need a doctor that is aware of their si tuation and that has a plan of overcoming the quandary the patient is in. These same individuals interact with nurses recurrently and find relief in their understanding and ability to console the patients during the period of their predicament. The major social value of the contributing nurses is, at times, overpowering. With so many people all over the world constantly struggling to endure their circumstances it is evident of how valuable the medical skills are and the people who provide them.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The World of Chariots Chariot Racing, popular public game in the classical world of ancient Greece and Rome, in which horses pulled a two-wheeled chariot, or small cart, driven by a charioteer. Often the chariot driver stood in the chariot, rather than sitting. A chariot driver cracks his whip to encourage his horses. Chariot racing was a popular pastime in ancient Greece and Rome and was recorded as an event in the ancient Olympic Games. At the ancient Olympic Games, which began in 776 bc, the chariot race was often the first and most spectacular of the events. The course consisted of 12 double laps, nearly 14 km (9 mi) in all. The most important race was for teams of four horses controlled by one driver. The owners of these teams were nobles, and the victory wreaths were awarded to the owners. By the early 7th century bc there were also professional charioteers from the lower classes. Greek chariots were light, two-wheeled vehicles driven with the driver standing up. Accidents were frequent, and emotions often reached a high pitch. Greek lyric poet Pindar, who sometimes wrote victory odes for the owners of winning teams, tells of one race in which 40 teams were entered but only one finished. Chariot racing was a popular theme in Greek art, appearing in sculpture, vase painting, and engravings on coins. Chariot racing in the Roman Empire was significantly different than it had been under the Greeks. Racing stables were distinguished by the color that their drivers and horses wore. Red and white were the older colors, but green and blue gradually eclipsed them, eventually overtaking them entirely. Interest in chariot racing centered on the victory of the color rather than on the skill of the driver or the quality of the horses. Political and even religious importance came to be attached to the colors. Chariot drivers were commoners, freedmen, or slaves who had been professionally trained from boyhood. If successful, their prestige and earnings were tremendous; unlike the Greeks, the Romans regularly awarded monetary prizes. Roman satirical poet Juvenal remarked that a certain charioteer earned a hundred times the salary of a lawyer. Honorary inscriptions in stone recorded many interesting facts about both drivers and horses. The most prized horses came from Libya, Sicily, Spain, Thessaly, Armenia, Parthia, and Cappadocia. A team of four horses controlled by one driver was the most common, although races were run with teams of as many as ten or as few as two horses.
Inventing a Writing Technology At first glance, inventing a new writing technology seems like an easy task. The pencil is a writing technology, and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s so complicated about it? It appears to be a fairly primitive writing utensil. Certainly, I can conjure up something that reasonably fits the description of a Ã¢â¬Å"new writing technology.Ã¢â¬ But looking a little more deeply, I have to consider that the basic concept of the pencil has lasted for centuries Ã¢â¬â it apparently serves its purpose extremely well. And, in reality, in 2004, there are hundreds of companies who, in turn, employ thousands whose specific purpose is to design and produce these seemingly simple hand-held writing devices. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s beginning to sound a little more complicated. Lastly, a pencil has an inherent efficiency and portability that is hard to beat. Within the structure of my given assignment, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think I can invent the Ã¢â¬Å"next pencilÃ¢â¬ , but the following describes my best attempt at inven ting a new writing technology, and some reflections on the relationship between writing and technology: Inventing and Writing To generate a focus for this project, I mentally brainstormed ideas and progressed from Ã¢â¬Å"naturalÃ¢â¬ materials (grass, twigs) to various household materials (Diet Coke labels, pipe cleaners, foil), until I started going through my closets and hit upon the concept of utilizing board games in some way. Since we needed to use an alphabet, but no writing materials, most games were eliminated Ã¢â¬â they use paper cards or symbolic Ã¢â¬Å"pieces.Ã¢â¬ Scrabble seemed perfect since it has a movable alphabet Ã¢â¬â small wooden Ã¢â¬Å"tilesÃ¢â¬ with letters imprinted on them. And besides, itÃ¢â¬â¢s my favorite childhood game, probably since I could win when I played again... ...nne Trubek. New York: Longman, 2003. 35-53. Eisenstein, Elizabeth. Ã¢â¬Å"Some Features of Print Culture.Ã¢â¬ 1983. Writing Material: Readings from Plato to the Digital Age. Ed. Evelyn B. Tribble and Anne Trubek. New York: Longman, 2003. 124-134. National Scrabble Association. Ã¢â¬Å"History of Scrabble.Ã¢â¬ 2 July 2004 . Ong, Walter. Ã¢â¬Å"Writing is a Technology that Restructures Thought.Ã¢â¬ 1985. Writing Material: Readings from Plato to the Digital Age. Ed. Evelyn B. Tribble and Anne Trubek. New York: Longman, 2003. 315-337. Plato. Ã¢â¬Å"Phaedrus.Ã¢â¬ Trans. H. N. Fowler, 1914. Writing Material: Readings from Plato to the Digital Age. Ed. Evelyn B. Tribble and Ann Trubek. New York: Longman, 2003. 360-364. Tribble, Evelyn B. and Trubek, Ann. Writing Material: Readings from Plato to the Digital Age. Ed. New York: Longman, 2003 Inventing a Writing Technology Essay -- Literature Techniques Papers Inventing a Writing Technology At first glance, inventing a new writing technology seems like an easy task. The pencil is a writing technology, and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s so complicated about it? It appears to be a fairly primitive writing utensil. Certainly, I can conjure up something that reasonably fits the description of a Ã¢â¬Å"new writing technology.Ã¢â¬ But looking a little more deeply, I have to consider that the basic concept of the pencil has lasted for centuries Ã¢â¬â it apparently serves its purpose extremely well. And, in reality, in 2004, there are hundreds of companies who, in turn, employ thousands whose specific purpose is to design and produce these seemingly simple hand-held writing devices. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s beginning to sound a little more complicated. Lastly, a pencil has an inherent efficiency and portability that is hard to beat. Within the structure of my given assignment, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think I can invent the Ã¢â¬Å"next pencilÃ¢â¬ , but the following describes my best attempt at inven ting a new writing technology, and some reflections on the relationship between writing and technology: Inventing and Writing To generate a focus for this project, I mentally brainstormed ideas and progressed from Ã¢â¬Å"naturalÃ¢â¬ materials (grass, twigs) to various household materials (Diet Coke labels, pipe cleaners, foil), until I started going through my closets and hit upon the concept of utilizing board games in some way. Since we needed to use an alphabet, but no writing materials, most games were eliminated Ã¢â¬â they use paper cards or symbolic Ã¢â¬Å"pieces.Ã¢â¬ Scrabble seemed perfect since it has a movable alphabet Ã¢â¬â small wooden Ã¢â¬Å"tilesÃ¢â¬ with letters imprinted on them. And besides, itÃ¢â¬â¢s my favorite childhood game, probably since I could win when I played again... ...nne Trubek. New York: Longman, 2003. 35-53. Eisenstein, Elizabeth. Ã¢â¬Å"Some Features of Print Culture.Ã¢â¬ 1983. Writing Material: Readings from Plato to the Digital Age. Ed. Evelyn B. Tribble and Anne Trubek. New York: Longman, 2003. 124-134. National Scrabble Association. Ã¢â¬Å"History of Scrabble.Ã¢â¬ 2 July 2004 . Ong, Walter. Ã¢â¬Å"Writing is a Technology that Restructures Thought.Ã¢â¬ 1985. Writing Material: Readings from Plato to the Digital Age. Ed. Evelyn B. Tribble and Anne Trubek. New York: Longman, 2003. 315-337. Plato. Ã¢â¬Å"Phaedrus.Ã¢â¬ Trans. H. N. Fowler, 1914. Writing Material: Readings from Plato to the Digital Age. Ed. Evelyn B. Tribble and Ann Trubek. New York: Longman, 2003. 360-364. Tribble, Evelyn B. and Trubek, Ann. Writing Material: Readings from Plato to the Digital Age. Ed. New York: Longman, 2003
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Brains of Violent Males "It becomes increasingly evident that some of the destruction which curses the earth is self-destruction; the extraordinary propensity of the human being to join hands with external forces in an attack upon his own existence is one of the most remarkable of biological phenomena." -Karl Menninger (1). Violence is everywhere in our society- in movies, television programs, video games, and professional sports such as boxing and wrestling. In 2000, 28,663 deaths were related to firearms. 58% were reported as suicides and 39% were reported as homicides (2). The objective of this paper is to qualitatively evaluate and compare the brains of male murderers and male suicide victims. Even though more females attempt suicide, males are used for comparison because males are four times more likely to die from a suicide attempt (3). Male suicidal individuals have a higher success rate because they are more likely to kill themselves in a violent manner (i.e. using a gun). At first glance, most people would argue that homicide and suicide are opposite behaviors, yet the relationship may not be that straightforward. If it is assumed that the brain dictates behavior and that suicide and homicide are independent behaviors, one would expect that researchers would find differences between the brains of suicide victims and murderers. At the other extreme, suicide and homicide can be considered similar behaviors because in both cases an individual engages in killing someone, the only thing that differs is where the killing impulse is directed. Homicide is directed towards the external world, whereas suicide is aggression turned inward. When the cause of unhappiness can be attributed to an external s... ...robiology of suicide. http://www.afsp.org/research/articles/Mann/mann1.htm 8) Decision-making processes following damage to the prefrontal cortex, Article from Brain (2002). http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/125/3/624.pdf 9) "What's different about a Killer's Brain?" Whitley Strieber's web page http://www.unknowncountry.com/news/?id=2085 10) Why? The neuroscience of suicide: Physical clues to suicide , Scientific American article. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000D8D31-6937-1E1B-8B3B809EC588EEDF 11) Paxil & murder/ suicide. A story about how the maker of Paxil held liable in murder/suicide. http://www.baumhedlundlaw.com/media/ssri/Paxil_murder.htm 12) The mind of a killer. ABC news web page which contains pictures of normal brain and a murderer's brain http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/DailyNews/killer_brain021023.html
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Education is a broadly debated topic, now there is a new concept emerging, Ã¢â¬â¢flexible learningÃ¢â¬â¢. This essay will discuss what is understood by this term and how it could affect the way of the future in education. Furthermore it will discuss how flexible learning has engaged technology and how it has made education more accessible and equitable. Next it will demonstrate how individual students have benefited through the use of technology with flexible learning, and how students are able to be the central focus of their own education. Technology brings with it many advantages for the future of education, however not without some setbacks, this essay will also discuss these. This essay will argue that because of the increasing accessibility and improvements in technology, flexible learning should be the way of the future in education. Flexible learning is quickly becoming the way of the future for education, as it engages and implements the use of sophisticated technology. According to George and Luke (cited in Andrews & Ferman 2001) flexible learning is a multi-directional approach to learning using different methods of delivery. On the other hand, Nunan (cited in Andrews & Ferman 2001, p. 2) considers that Ã¢â¬Ëflexible delivery is often taken to mean the same thing as increasing flexibility in learningÃ¢â¬â¢. Summarising Harmes (2010) explains flexible learning engages technology, allowing the use of the internet, e-mail, and other digital interactive technology. It also allows the student to freely access online lectures and study material and more importantly it enables teachers to position the student as the central focus of the learning experience. This can be seen at universities including the relatively new University of Queensland campus at Ipswich who are using technology to promote flexible learning. It was in fact the purpose built with this in mind; and included computer rooms, a self-directed learning centre and even wireless laptops (Andrews&Ferman 2001). Another example of flexible learning is discussed by Huijser, Bedford and Bull (2008) who describe the Tertiary Preparation Program (TPP); this is a course which is accessed online and on-campus. TPP students can engage in online lectures, Wimba classrooms and forums, study material can also be submitted online and feedback returned to student, again online. Using technology students have engaged in flexible learning all over Australia, including international students. Furthermore TPP is currently funded by the government making it free; this allows students to prepare for higher study prior to investment. The outcome of this should be a higher intake of fee paying students, which in turn should lead to increased government funding for universities. Flexible learning through technology has made education more accessible and therefore equitable. Harmes (2010) discusses how the internet has increased the number of students to able to study degrees through online study material and lectures. As a result of technological advances the world has become a Ã¢â¬Å"global village Ã¢â¬Å"and students can participate in a global classroom. Worldwide opportunities using technology and flexible learning should be funded locally (Zhao 2009). Ultimately this will enable there to be proximity through distance, and will allow students to study anytime and anywhere, thus making education more equitable explains Harmes (2010). There are students from as far away as remote Western Australia studying through the University of Southern Queensland (USQ). They are able to access all the lectures and tutorials online, and USQ plans to offer many more academic programs online by 2012 (The Chronicle 2009). Ã¢â¬ËTechnology is the tool used to provide a facility for a teacher facilitated, learner centred environmentÃ¢â¬â¢ (Bonanno, 2005). It is only through the many improvements and advances in technology that education has been so accessible and with it flexible learning has been implemented. Flexible learning has made education more accessible because, study is teacher facilitated and enables the student to be positioned as the central focus of education. According to Harmes there are many benefits of flexible learning, students are able to access their study any time they like, and this means that they are able to co-ordinate study around work and family life. The flexibility that technology provides has enabled students to study at their own pace (Andrews& Ferman, 2001). Additionally students have a sense of freedom with their study, slotting it in whenever they please. Knowles (cited in Choy and Delahaye 2002) researched how adult learners are more likely to be motivated and experienced in life, and that they are ready to embrace learning with deeper appreciation and understanding. Knowles (1973) continues by discussing how this self-driven learning is assisted through flexible delivery and how students benefit from a mature independent approach to education with the option for teacher help when needed. As a result of this Bonanno suggests that with good self-discipline and time management students are able to have freedom and access to study anytime and place, thus enabling many styles of learning. Technology has increased the flexibility that students have, thus allowing greater access to education. Despite the fact that education has embraced technology, there are still some problems which must be resolved. According to Ralston (1999) it appears that although many have embraced technology for learning, there are still many who are either too afraid to or do not have the skills and confidence to do so. Furthermore he suggests that that those who do not attempt to engage technology will be severely disadvantaged, because the twenty-first century is the age of technology. Andrews and Ferman (2000) noted on their study of the University of Queensland, -Ipswich campus that many students found the course material limited, that there was a lack of structure, and there were also a significant number of technical difficulties. Additionally Bonanno (2005) discusses some of the disadvantages of technology and states that the learner can easily lose motivation partly due to a lack of classroom spirit and teacher facilitated learning. Technology can be out of date or difficult to understand and often it can be confusing and sometimes it can just be that there is no technical support available. BonannoÃ¢â¬â¢s (2005) comments that many problems occurring are learner related and that in order to be successful the learner must be self-motivated and have a reasonable degree of self-competency. She also comments that the facilitator or teacher must be motivated as well and be able to produce engaging study material for the student to work with; they must also be able to direct, listen and support students. Despite some complications, changes in technology help to make sure education is more accessible and equitable. Universities are able to capture larger numbers of students enabling more funding from the government. Students are able to be in control of their own education pathway and are able to be flexible about when and where they choose to study. Students can also choose to study gregariously in online classrooms and even traditional classrooms. Problematic areas will in time be improved as technology upgrades on a daily basis; including faster internet options. With this evolving technology peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and experience will increase and in time student numbers and study options will grow. It is realistic that flexible learning will be and indeed should be the way of the future in education and that there will be a worldwide classroom. References Andrews, T & Ferman, T 2001, Ã¢â¬ËThe flexible learning experience Ã¢â¬â how good is it really? Ã¢â¬â¢ in L Richardson & J Lidstone (eds), Flexible learning for a flexible society, pp. 39-45. Proceedings of ASET-HERDSA 2000 Conference, Toowoomba, Qld, 2-5 July 2000. ASET and HERDSA http://www. aset. org. au/confs/aset-herdsa2000/procs/andrews-t. html. Bonanno, K 2005, Ã¢â¬ËOnline learning : the good the bad and the uglyÃ¢â¬â¢, Proceedings of the XIX Biennial Conference Ã¢â¬â Meeting the Challenge, Australian School Library Association, Zillmere, QLD, pp. 1-7 Choy, SC & Delahaye, BL 2002, Ã¢â¬ËAndragogy in vocational education and training: learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ perspectiveÃ¢â¬â¢, Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference, Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association (AVETRA), Melbourne, VIC University of Southern Queensland 2009, Ã¢â¬ËUniversity offers online options to its studentsÃ¢â¬â¢, The Chronicle, 10 Jul, p. 41. Collis, B & Moonen, J 2002, Flexible learning in a digital world: experiences and expectations, Kogan Page, London, UK, pp. 8-10,17,26-27. Harmes, M 2011,TPP7120 Studying to succeed ,Appendix 3Ã¢â¬â¢Flexible and Blended LearningÃ¢â¬â¢, University of Southern Queensland,Toowoomba,viewed 25 September 2011,http://usqstudydesk. usq. au/ Huijser, H, Bedford, T & Bull, D 2008, Ã¢â¬ËOpenCourseWare global access and the right to education: real access or marketing ploy? Ã¢â¬Ë, International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-13. Ralston, P 1999, Ã¢â¬ËEducation for IT equityÃ¢â¬â¢, The Australian, 12 Jan, p. 44. Zhao, Y 2009, Catching up or leading the way: American education in the age of globalization, ASCD, Alexandria, VA, pp. 98-113.
Monday, September 16, 2019
This analysis will financially compare Santos Limiter's financial performance for the year ending 31st December 2013 with the previous year's results, by way of ratio analysis. It will also benchmark the latest result with that of Woodside Petroleum for the same period using the same ratio analysis of the 2013 financial statements of each company.A copy of these ratio analysis are attached to this report as appendix 1, which contains a through time comparison for the last two years for Santos Limited ND the across time comparison with Woodside Petroleum for the most recent year. As Basely and Hancock (2013 p. 358) depict there are certain factors relevant to selecting an appropriate benchmark.Woodside Petroleum has been selected as the benchmarking company as Woodside also operates in oil and gas production, focusing operations within the Australian area. While Woodside operations are larger than that of Santos, the relative size of these companies is comparable and both follow the a ccounting policies required by the Corporations Act 2001 , Australian Accounting Standards and other authoritative pronouncements of the Australian Accounting standards board.Both companies are listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (ASS) which provides comparative data for the ratios analyzed and presented in Appendix 1 with the following tables; Table 1 Ã¢â¬â Profitability ratios Table 2 Ã¢â¬â Efficiency ratios Table 3 Ã¢â¬â Short-term solvency ratios Table 4 Ã¢â¬â Long-term solvency ratios and Table 5 Ã¢â¬â Market-based ratios A copy of Santos Limiter's 2013, 2012 and Woodside petroleum Ã¢â¬Ës 2013 Annual reports are attached to this report as Appendix 2, Appendix 3 and Appendix 4 especially, for reference to the findings and suggestions outlined in this review.One limitation of the comparison is that Santos Limited reports their financial data in Australian (ALL'S) dollars, while Woodside Petroleum report their financial data in American (US) dollars. This is o vercome by using ratios for a majority of comparisons and converting the US dollar amounts into ASS dollars when required. 2. 0 Ratio Analysis To look at the relationship between figures presented in the financial statements, this report uses a ratio analysis technique. To fully understand the ratios developed e will look at them in context of other information provided in various reports and the overall goals of the company.From these ratios the report will then compare these against the benchmark and ultimately identify areas for improvement and, if necessary, change. 2. 1 Profitability. As we can see from Table 1 Ã¢â¬â Profitability ratios, the net profit margin and the gross profit margin fell 1 . 74% and 4. 26% respectively in 2013. While sales increased 1 1 . 76% for the year, the gross profit margin decreased as previously stated which, was the main driver for the decrease in net profit margin for the year as the interest expense o sales remained consistent.There was a sli ght drop in return on assets, however asset turnover remained fairly constant, highlighting that the drop in net profit margin is due to the drop in gross profit margin and not a lower turnover of assets. The reduction in gross profit margin is due to the increase in financing costs like depreciation and depletion (up 1. 5% of sales for 2013) and third party product purchases (up 5. 6% of sales). The reduction in financing income also played a major part in pushing down profits. In comparison Woodside has a higher return on assets Han Santos due to the 16. 8% higher profit margin and they turnover assets more efficiently. Also, Santos' continuing capital growth strategies in projects such as the Papua New Guiana Liquefied Natural Gas (PING LONG) and the Gladstone Liquid Natural Gas (GLEN) transformational projects which are outlined in the 2013 Annual report, are still in the developing phase, therefore not producing to generate sales until the following years. Woodside had a low co mmitment to capital expenditure for the same financial year and after selling off major capital in 2012 their use of debt as far less (shown as the leverage ratio in Table 4).The return on ordinary shareholder's equity (ROE) ratio shows the return for the shareholders who supply equity to the business. The ROE is higher for Woodside due to their higher profit margins however, the higher financial leverage ratio in Table 4 will benefit Santos' shareholders when the return on assets increases compared to the financing costs. This will happen when the above mentioned projects begin production. This is congruent with the statement in a press release by Managing Director (M. D) and Chief Executive Officer (C.E. O) Mr. David Knox on 21st of February 2014. Ã¢â¬Å"In particular, our natural gas reserve and resource base in eastern Australia, combined with our leading infrastructure position, leaves Santos strategically well placed to meet growing market demand,Ã¢â¬ . 2. 2 Efficiency ratio s For the 2013 fiscal year the sales and also the number of debtors increased. The use of efficiency ratios helps determine whether the increase in debtors is due to the increase in sales alone or that it is caused by the debtors taking longer to pay.These ratios show this by providing statistical relations on how effectively Santos Limited is electing its outstanding owing money and converting the inventory into sales. From Table 2 we see that comparing the last two fiscal years for Santos Limited has made improvements in their debt collection practices. The number of days taken to collect debtors accounts has reduce from 78. 71 to 65. 53 days but is still outside Santos Limiter's standard 30 days for settlement of accounts. The closing balance is showing more debtors accounts being past the 65. 3 day average for 2013 fiscal year. Comparing these figures to Santos' competitor Woodside, whose debtor recovery is loser to the standard 30 days terms at 31. 63 days. An article in the Sy dney Morning Herald depicts that the question has been asked whether there is a gas reservation policy by shareholders, of which Santos Chairman Mr. Board denies. The ratio analysis of days taken to turn inventory into sales shows a possible reason for this question arising as the number of days taken to convert inventory into sales has risen in 2013 from 52. 19 to 53. 62 days.This is only a slight increase and with an expected increase in demand, this slight rise in inventory would be expected to cover n increase in demand. However, when comparing this level to the benchmark, Woodside inventory turnover is far less at 30. 46 days for a higher sales volume. 2. 3 Short-term solvency ratios While the previous ratios focus on performance of the company solvency ratios focus on assisting the company with decisions, short term and long term. Table 3 shows the short-term solvency ratios which assist in the short term decision making.The current ratio is the most basic test as to how liqui d a company is. It expresses a company's ability to meet its short-term liabilities with its short-term assets. A current ratio greater than or equal to one indicates that current assets should be able to satisfy short-term obligations. A ratio less than one indicated an inability to meet short term requirements. The quick ratio calculated for 2013 compared to 2012 shows the company's ability to pay is has reduced to below the 1:1 ratio, expressing that should the company be required to pay all current debts immediately, they could not do so.Due in part to the reduction in cash levels reducing the current assets from 34. 6% to 20. 3% of net assets. Also increases in the amount of short term interest bearing borrowings increases the current liabilities from 13. 6% of net assets to 16. 9%. With the less cover to pay the increase in short-term liabilities, there is a higher financial risk. When comparing these ratios to that of Woodside, Canton's short term debt paying ability is carry ing greater risks, but comparable with this benchmark. While the quick ratio decline to . 3:1 is cause for concern, the Cash flow from operations to current liabilities ratio shows that 94% of current liabilities can be covered with operational cash flow. Compare this to Woodside, which can easily cover rent liabilities with 141% of its current liabilities covered with operational cash flow. 2. 4 Long-term solvency ratios As the short-term financial risk has previously been expressed, the long term decisions can be assisted by the long-term solvency ratios expressed in Table 4. The debt to equity ratio compares the total liabilities of Santos Limited and compares it to the each dollar of shareholder's equity.During 2013 Santos' reliance has risen due to the increased borrowings and interest bearing loans, so for every $1 of shareholder's equity there is $1. 02 worth of debt obligations. This level of debt is double than that of our benchmark, Woodside Petroleum however, the debt to total asset ratio suggests there is enough assets to cover the debt long term. This might put the company under financial risk and indicate high use of debt compared to shareholder's equity and a greater financial risk long term. This increases the cost of interest in operation, effecting negatively on profitability.The interest coverage while currently is below the industry benchmark, there is sufficient coverage to ensure interest payment obligations will be met. The amount contributed to the long term room each $1 of operating cash flow has also been significantly reduced, moving further away from the benchmark company. This will increase interest costs long term however, also effecting profit margins. 2. 5 Market-based ratios The price per earnings ratio shown in Table 5 show how much the market would pay for shares of stock of the company per dollar of reported profit.About. Coma's business finance reporter Rosemary Palaver suggests that the average price to earnings ratio is a round 19 with Santos' ratio higher at 27. 68 and the benchmark, Woodside, ratio marginally lower at 17. 49. Reasons for Santos' higher than average price per earnings ratio would be due to the potential for Santos increase earnings per share in the foreseeable future and investors are trading accordingly. Other reasons for a high ratio are when companies are in a growth phase, which Santos' financial statements suggest it currently is not.A high ratio also suggests that the company has financial risk which was expressed in the short-term and long-term solvency ratios. While the market is willing to pay a higher price for investment in shares per dollar Santos reports as profit, the earnings yield assists in evaluating whether returns on investment compensates the risk adequately. The yield of 3. 61% for 2013 is down on sass's 4. 53% and short of Woodside 5. 72%, which is at a lower risk. Thus, Santos' shares did not perform to the industry benchmark and shareholders are not getting the yield expected for their investments.Dividends are also low, reflecting the company's growth positioning for the coming few years. 3. 0 Recommendations The increase in growing demand as expected by Mr. David Knox in a release and the move into production phase of the PING project will generate extra operating ash, primarily with already obtained assets. Therefore the focus moving forward should be reducing the financing costs involved in the cost of goods sold. This will in turn increase profit margins, giving a greater return on assets due to lower interest costs, moving margins closer to that of the benchmark Woodside Petroleum.The rate at which inventory is used to generate sales should be reviewed as it is slightly behind the benchmark. One suggestion to come from these ratio findings is that debtor control needs to be tightened which in turn will improve operations cash flow. Steps have been taken during the last fiscal year to reduce the number of days to collect outstandi ng debtor accounts, further improvement will also increase operating cash flow which will reduce the financial risk of the company to pay its current liabilities.The inventory level should be reduced to be more comparable to Woodside and increasing the quick assets level used to repay current liabilities. Further to assist in reducing the risk associated with the company's short-term solvency would be a focus on reducing the current interest-bearing loans and borrowings. 4. Conclusion. Through the usage of ratio analysis this report has analyses Santos Limiter's financial performance over the last two years and benchmark it against Australia's largest oil and natural gas producer.There are several other factors influencing position and performance like international economies, competition and major long term growth projects etc. These play a decisive role in the changes in profits, earnings yield and dividend yield. The last two years have seen Santos' profits and stock performances below industry averages but this is large in part to the investment in growth opportunities, which will begin production in the near future. Some findings and recommendations have been made to improve the financial position of the company so the entity and the shareholders that have invested in it can prosper.Although the companies are in the same field, factors like subsidiary companies or having some different end product can create problem in comparing the companies. The economic condition in the different region and the accounting techniques adopted by these companies while computing ratios and financial tenement also decreases the credibility of the calculation (Charles and Patricia, 1983) 5. 0 References Charles H. Gibson & Patricia A. Brush-off. 1983. Z ND Edition. Kent Publishing Company.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Sorry ladies but this one is for the guys. Fellas close your eyes imagine you went through college playing your favorite sport or in this case football, imagine your on defense the running back has the ball heÃ¢â¬â¢s about to score the game winning touchdown and just as heÃ¢â¬â¢s getting to run across the goal line BAM! You knock him clean off his feet before he scores and you guys win the game. But wait you hear whistles and see flags everywhere, you just got penalized for un-sportsmen like conduct, the ball is placed at the spot of the penalty and you get fined over $25,000 dollars, all because your helmet accidently hit the other playerÃ¢â¬â¢s helmet.This is what the NFL has come down to people. In this speech I am going to share with you the new rules implemented into football, the type of fines you get for playing football (doing your job) and how I think football will be ruined in the next 10 years. To Begin With, according to http://www. nfl. com/rulebook over the last t en years or so football (NFL and NCAA) has been adding rules that are intended to protect players, and rules that have no significance other than to give the offense an advantage .Roughing the passer rules, illegal contact, horse collar tackling, below the waist blocks, head to head contact, and many more. Football to me is a gladiator sport played by tough strong men who play hurt and try to hurt others. It seems that lately the leagues just want high profile players scoring all the time, with no violence or defense. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s becoming more like basketball, is the game on the decline? Also, look at the tough as nails superstars of last year, where have they gone. And if you can watch a football game from the 50? s 60? s or 70? Yes, these rules have made football rather boring. Obviously, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember names such as Mean Joe Greene, Jack Lambert, Howie Long, and others. These guys were hard hitting players. The NFL says they are looking out for the future of the playe rs and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why they implement all these rules but then at the same time they lengthen the season it just doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense. Secondly, letÃ¢â¬â¢s go back to the 2011 season the infamous Ã¢â¬Å"lockoutÃ¢â¬ where in a few short words Ã¢â¬Å"the NFL was going brokeÃ¢â¬ thankfully they got through it and now we have football for sure until 2016.But itÃ¢â¬â¢s funny to see the results of the lockout till this day. Two years ago players didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about all these strictly enforced rules but now since the NFL needs more money you hear about all these ridiculous fines that the players get for simply just doing their job which is to play football. There are people in this world that work hard every day of their lives and most of them donÃ¢â¬â¢t make what football players get fined in a whole year of working. For example, according to the Bleach Report at http://bleacherreport. com players such as E.J. Henderson who was fined $5,000 for illegal use of hands, Richie Incognito was also fined for $5,000 for a facemask penalty and an additional $5,000 for an illegal chop block. Plaxico BurressÃ was fined $5,000 for tossing a ball into the stands after scoring a touchdown againstÃ San Francisco; DeAngelo Williams was fined $7,500 for throwing a couple balls into the stands in their game againstÃ New Orleans. And a real ridiculous one was Lamar Woodley who was fined $10,000 for sackingÃ RedskinsÃ quarterback Jason Campbell Ã¢â¬Å"in an intimidating manner. I know itÃ¢â¬â¢s not just me who thinks these fines are ill-advised. Last, letÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about how I think the NFL or the game of football in general is going to change. We can all agree that football now isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the same football ten, twenty years ago which in some ways can be good for instance the equipment has improved in great strides but even though they are making more protective equipment they are taking the violence that I and the rest of America like that comes with the game of football.By adding all these rules that you canÃ¢â¬â¢t hit players a certain way, you have to use certain body parts to tackle, and even after the tackle you have all that adrenaline corseting through your veins and you canÃ¢â¬â¢t even express your emotions without getting penalized and as a football player I can tell you thatÃ¢â¬â¢s unfair thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what the people like to see the emotion. Now letÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about college football even they have added rules to the rule book.And as much as some of you might not think itÃ¢â¬â¢s a big deal it is to us defensive players, because now not only do we have to figure out what the offense is doing, where the ball is at now we have to worry about when they have the ball where to Ã¢â¬Å"properlyÃ¢â¬ tackle them or having to wait till the receiver has Ã¢â¬Å"complete controlÃ¢â¬ of the ball before a defensive player can hit him, how is that football if IÃ¢â¬â¢m letting him catch the ball I was under the impression that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t let them catch the ball but whatever. And according to http://www. theatlanticwire. om they are even trying to change more rules to make football Ã¢â¬Å"more safeÃ¢â¬ at this rate kids in college arenÃ¢â¬â¢t going to want to play professional football anymore which will cause a big problem cause according to NFL. com NFL merchandise makes up for 53% of its total profit. And no one will watch what is left of what the NFL calls football. To conclude, to sum up what IÃ¢â¬â¢m trying to say is if no one stands up to what the commissioners are trying to do with football thereÃ¢â¬â¢s going to be a lot of changes that no one likes they need to come up with some kind of alternative to fining player and suspending the for doing their jobs.So next time youÃ¢â¬â¢re watching a game on TV or at the stadium and you see a player get tackled and itÃ¢â¬â¢s a big hit just remember the person who tackled the player is most likely going to get fine d more than most people in America make in a year. And mark my words if the NFL doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do something quick the fans will have a big impact and football will change as we know it. Ron, Rokhy. Ã¢â¬Å"NFL tackling itself with new Ã¢â¬Å"safetyÃ¢â¬ rules. Ã¢â¬Å"Daily Sundial.Copyright Ã © 2012 Ã¢â¬â Daily Sundial, 06 09 2011. Web. 12 Feb 2013. . John, Hudson. Ã¢â¬Å"Will the NFL's New Hitting Rules Ruin Football?. Ã¢â¬ Ã Atlantic Wire. Copyright Ã © 2013 by The Atlantic Monthly Group, 19 10 2010. Web. 12 Feb 2013. . Derek, Correspondent Ã¢â¬Å"Is Roger Goodell Ruining Football?. Ã¢â¬ Ã Bleacher Report. Copyright Ã © 2013 Bleacher Report, Inc, 05 04 2009. Web. 12 Feb 2013. .
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Assignment 1: Cross-Cultural Dimensions Describe the effect of the cross-cultural dimensions of both Hofstede and Trompenaars on two subjects for both your home country as the country of your internship Trompenaars Australia 1. Universalism vs. particularism 2. Individualism vs. collectivism 3. Neutral vs. emotional 4. Specific vs. diffuse 5. Achievement vs. ascription 6. Sequential vs. synchronic 7. Internal vs. external control Leadership Leadership in Australia is very much based on rules. Therefore, clear instructions are given to the employees at all time, so that every single employee knows what he or she has to do. Because of the individualism, people all work for themselves. Together, however, they make sure the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s result is positive. Group work is not really integrated in the Australian culture. Australians have the perception, because of their neutral character, that people can work together perfectly, without bonding in their personal lives. All of the above leads to a straight leadership. A manager talks to his or her employees to tell them what they have to do individually. No groups have to be monitored, so the manager can really concentrate on his own task and organise the workforce per individual. Organisational culture The organisational culture in Australia is also based on this individualism. As mentioned under Ã¢â¬ËleadershipÃ¢â¬â¢, Australian people mainly work individually. They believe that people should take their own decisions and must be self-reliant within a business and not dependent on managers or colleagues. Furthermore, the organisation is very strict. It is a loose and indirect organisation up to a certain extent. The communication between people within the organisation is very informal and direct. At the same time, the whole organisation is based on rules. Rules are more important than relationships according to the Australian culture. Netherlands 1. Universalism vs. particularism 2. Individualism vs. collectivism 3. Neutral vs. emotional 4. Specific vs. diffuse 5. Achievement vs. ascription 6. Sequential vs. synchronic 7. Internal vs. external control Leadership The Dutch leadership is based on the universalism, in other words on strict rules. Everything is determined with rules. However, the atmosphere at the working place is not strict. The communication from manager to employees is direct and formal. Employees know exactly what they are up to and can work on their work individually. Leaders trust their employees in this, they count on their employees to be self-reliant and independent in their work. Furthermore, Dutch managers work with strict deadlines. The Dutch culture is very much based on punctuality. They eat at 6 oÃ¢â¬â¢clock, they go to sleep at 11 oÃ¢â¬â¢clock. The same counts in the business-life. When a task is given to you, you are to make sure it is finished before the deadline set. Whenever possible, leaders give their employees reassurance that they are doing a good job. Employees also need this positive feedback to boost their self-confidence, which gives them a positive Ã¢â¬Ëget-up-and-goÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude. Good perf ormance is appreciated and rewarded. Organisational culture The organisational culture is mainly individual. The Dutch people want every single person to be happy. Therefore, they tend to give feedback all the time to boost self-confidence, they let everybody do their say in a discussion, etc. Furthermore, everybody is expected to have their work done before the set deadline. Dutch people are very punctual and therefore do not like people who show up late at meetings or who hand in their work too late. Next to these strict deadlines, almost everything is based on rules. Even to such an extent that rules come before relationships. Dutch people work together individually, which means that by all doing their work in the right way, they deliver a good organisation-wide result. Conclusion According to the cultural dimensions of Trompenaars, the Australian and the Dutch culture are very much alike. They only differ in one category, namely the internal vs. external control, where the Australian focus more on internal control, whereas the Netherlands concentrates more on external control. The other factors are all the same. Some are to a lesser extent, such as the achievement, which is far higher in Australia. However, it can be concluded that the Australian and the Dutch business culture are quite the same, certainly in the areas of leadership and organisational culture. Hofstede Australia 1. Power distance Ã¢â¬â 36 2. Individualism Ã¢â¬â 90 3. Masculinity Ã¢â¬â 61 4. Uncertainty Avoidance -51 5. Long-term Orientation-31 Leadership The hierarchical structure in Australia is nearly flat. To use HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s words: The power distance in Australia is relatively low. Managers are always easily accessible by employees and ask employees for their opinions. This kind of mutual information sharing leads to the best results for the workforce as a whole. If someone bosses the others around, a negative atmosphere arises and therefore the productivity might also suffer under these circumstances. This is not the case when information is shared on a regular basis, so that everybody knows what the company is up to and what is expected of him or her individually. This way, people can all work individually on what is expected of them and therefore, at the same time, deliver a good Ã¢â¬Ëgroup resultÃ¢â¬â¢, because everybody does his own thing, so that everything is done eventually. People are not working closely together, because of the highly individualistic Australian culture, in which self-reliance is expected of the employees. Organisational culture The organisational culture is, as mentioned above, highly individualistic. There is some kind of cooperation, but this is not cooperation as we know it. Together, they make sure all the work is done, but this is not by really working together. The organisational culture is very transparent. Because of this transparency, every individual knows what is going on in the company and therefore knows what he or she is ought to do. Eventually, good individual work in all different departments adds up to a positive result in the organisation as a whole. This result is reviewed every quarter, because of the short-term-oriented Australian culture This individuality is because of the masculine character of Australian people. All people want to be the very best. They want to reach whatever their capacity allows them to achieve. And preferably as quickly as possible. Therefore, they mainly work for themselves and mainly care about their own well-being and the organisation is of secondary importance. Still, this characteristic is seen as an asset by many companies. People are hired on the basis of their winners mentality. This can, of course, be a good characteristic, but it should not be exaggerated, because then it can go at the cost of the organisation as a whole, which is of course not the intention. Netherlands 1. Power distance Ã¢â¬â 38 2. Individualism Ã¢â¬â 80 3. Masculinity Ã¢â¬â 14 4. Uncertainty Avoidance Ã¢â¬â 53 5. Long-term Orientation Ã¢â¬â 44 Leadership The power distance in the Dutch organisations is quite low. The hierarchical structure is quite flat. This, together with the feminine culture means that employees can communicate with their managers properly and managers also communicate with their staff. Therefore, the atmosphere in Dutch companies is generally good. The managers do not boss people around and they even ask their employees for their expertise and feedback. From an employee point of view, they can talk to the manager to ask for feedback, but only up to a certain extent. The individualistic culture of the Dutch organisations means that employees should be self-reliant and take initiatives. Organisational culture The Dutch organisational culture is one of punctuality, long discussions and impatience. First of all, the punctuality. The Dutch organisation is based on rules, punctuality and certainty. They want to avoid risk as much as possible and therefore try to make rules for everything, so that as little as possible can go wrong. The Dutch femininity means that they want the best for everyone. Therefore, discussions are mainly solved by compromises, which usually takes quite some time. In masculine cultures, decisions are made without looking at the preferences of certain groups, but because the Dutch believe in solidarity and equality, they want everybody to have their say, which leads to long discussions with compromises as end results. The Dutch impatience can be seen in their goal-mindedness. They want results to be achieved as quickly as possible. Furthermore, they want to keep up with the competition at every single moment. Therefore long-term plans are seldom made. Strategies are often adapted to that of their competitors, which makes it impossible to set a long-term organisational strategy. Conclusion Summarizing all of the above, the Australian culture and the Dutch culture do not differ that much. The only big difference is that the Dutch are feminine and the Australian are masculine, which makes the Australian organisational culture even more individualistic than the already individualistic Dutch culture. The Australians are more self-minded, whereas the Dutch want everybody to be equal and therefore do not take decisions themselves very often. When looking at the graph below, one can see that the two cultures do not differ all that much. Source: http://geert-hofstede.com/netherlands.html Assignment 2: Theoretical Models Relate to theoretical models to describe the above mentioned effect. Flat organisational structure. The model that can be found in both countries, Australia and the Netherlands, is the flat organisational structure. This means that managers do have a higher function, but do not act like they have a higher function. The flat organisational structure is the opposite of a highly hierarchical structure as described in Max WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëbureaucratic organisationÃ¢â¬â¢ 1. In hierarchical structures, the organogram has several layers from top to bottom, whereas the flat organisational structure has one layer, in which the managers are besides the employees that work in lower functions. This means that managers and employees in lower functions work closely together. The employees can easily go to their managers to talk about business-related cases and the manager trusts on his or her employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ expertise in the problem-solving of the organisation. This way, as Argyris also describes in his theory of adult personality2, a great mutual understanding and respect is created between managers and their employees. This mutual understanding and respect leads to a more positive attitude of all employees, which leads to better results for the organisation as a whole. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of human needs A big difference can be found, when looking at MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of human needs. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is based on two underlying principles, namely the Ã¢â¬Ëdeficit principleÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬Ëprogression principleÃ¢â¬â¢. Mainly in the Ã¢â¬Ëprogression principleÃ¢â¬â¢, there is a difference between Australia and the Netherlands. First of all, which are the human needs Maslow is talking about? In the Ã¢â¬Ëprogression principleÃ¢â¬â¢, Maslow says that a need at any level is activated only when the next-lower-level need is satisfied3. In this definition, there is of course no difference. However, in the hierarchy of these needs, there is a difference. Because of the competitive character of Australian business people, as a result from their masculine background, the self-actualisation need in Australia is far higher than in the Netherlands, where people often still work together. Self-actualisation is the 5th need in MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs. Based on t his higher self-actualisation in Australia, however, one can wonder if this is the fifth need in Australia as well. 1. Assignment 3: Cross-Cultural Differences Find out what the most important work related cross cultural differences are between your home country and the country of your internship. Explain them based on the cross cultural dimensions. Masculinity vs. femininity One of the biggest differences between the Australian and the Dutch business is the masculinity of Australia versus the femininity of the Netherlands. Australian masculinity is expressed in the urge of Australian people to be the best they can be and to reach the optimal allocation of their own strengths. Australian managers also pay attention to what people have achieved in the past, when hiring people. This makes the Australian market much more competitive than the Dutch market, because the Australian market is goal-oriented. This results in employees taking their own decisions, without consulting others. Contrary to this quick and efficient decision making, the Dutch tend to discuss problems with everyone until a compromise is reached. This is a highly feminine characteristic. Dutch people want to reach a consensus, before they take decisions. Internal vs. external control Another big difference between the two business cultures is the internal control versus the external control from Trompenaars, in which both countries differ. The internal control in the business culture of Australia is mainly recognisable in the behaviour of Australian managers. They tell their employees what to do and they trust that the work will be done before the determined deadline. They do not support their employees along the way or give them feedback on the work they are doing. The external control in the business culture of the Netherlands is mainly recognisable in the supportive behaviour of Dutch managers. They provide people with the right resources to do their job properly and afterwards give them feedback several times along the way. The Dutch employees are more Ã¢â¬ËdependentÃ¢â¬â¢ on the help and constructive feedback of their managers/leaders. This gives them the self-confidence to do their work with a positive attitude. Wages The wages in the Netherlands are more fixed than the wages in Australia. In most Dutch businesses, people get a fixed salary, whereas in Australia, the salary is a low basis salary with on top commissions, which are linked to your performance. In some Dutch businesses, the strategy of incentives, bonuses or commissions is used as well, but in Australia, this wage strategy is quite common. Therefore, the Australian market is more competitive than the Dutch market. Australians have to sell products to get high wages, whereas Dutch business people know that whatever they sell, they will get the same salary, which provides much more security than the strategy the Australians tend to use. DoÃ¢â¬â¢s Be selfish; work by yourself and in this process, try to be the best you can be. This can lead to a higher salary because of commissions as well. When you do not grab chances, others will. Clearly state your qualifications; make a clear CV, in which you state everything you have done in the past that could be in any way relevant for that specific job. Be decisive; expect less monitoring than you would get in the Netherlands, so sometimes you have to take your own decisions. Be self-confident; Australian managers, as opposed to Dutch managers, expect that you can perform a task from start to finish without feedback along the way. DonÃ¢â¬â¢ts Expect extensive support; Australian managers do not give feedback along the way, whereas in the Netherlands this is usual. Try to reach a consensus; in the Netherlands, decisions are mostly reached by consensus, do not try this in Australia, where decisions are mainly made individually, quick and efficiently. Expect fixed wages; wages consist of a basis salary and bonuses or commissions, that are granted for good performance. Assignment 4: Questions/Hypotheses Clearly define at least two challenging business oriented questions/hypotheses which you want to have answered during your stay abroad. Hand in a clearly defined Ã¢â¬Ë Plan of ActionÃ¢â¬â¢ how you will come with the answers. Does the flat organisational structure also count for international interns? In other words, is an international intern also trusted for his or her expertise by people in higher functions? The best way to find this out is by going there and experiencing it. I want to go on an internship to really learn something, which is relevant for my future career in the business life. I am not going to Australia because of the nice weather and the white beaches. I am going to Australia to obtain relevant experience, which will be of great value for my career in business. Therefore, I want to get as important as possible within the company where my internship will be. That is why I wonder how important they allow me to be. Do they really involve me in decision-making? In other words, am I treated as an equal or not? To find this out, I will interview an intern that has already been to Australia to discuss the organisational differences and which qualities are appreciated most in Australia. Afterwards, I will make up for myself, together with a colleague, an employer and a co-student, whether I have these qualities and how I can use these the best in a company where I start as a stranger. Lastly, I will of course try to get involved as much as possible and in this process, I will find out if they really give me the chance of becoming important. Can I function the same when I am 17000 km from home? I am not only going to Australia to obtain working experience. I am also going there to grow responsibility and to obtain further social experience. I have lived with my parents for my whole life now and my stay in Marseille from September to December will me my first experience living on my own. However, from Marseille to the Netherlands is just 1100 kilometres, so if I need anything, I have the possibility to go home in the meantime. However, when I am 17000 kilometres from home, this is not a possibility anymore, so I really have to cope by myself. Another difference is that I am going to Marseille with two class mates. To Australia, I will be going alone, which makes is even more nerve-wracking. My stay in Australia will be my first experience completely on my own, far, far away from home. So for me, it is, next to an incredible working experience, also a real life experience. I am going to grow responsibility and maturity, which will change me as a person. I am curious whether this will have its effect on my behaviour on the work floor as well and if this situation allows me to function the same as I would do here. This question, I plan to answer by setting up a list of competences, which I will let one of my current employers, one co-student and one colleague fill in. After my stay in Australia, I will give the same list of competences to my internship coordinator and a colleague in Australia. By comparing the results of these lists, I can find out whether there are many differences and whether they are in my advantage or in my disadvantage. Besides, I will, of course, experience it myself and describe the process of my self-development on a personal level as well as on a business level in a process report. Bibliography Websites Austrade. (2012, March 23). Doing Business in the Netherlands. Retrieved May 21, 2012, from Austrade: http://www.austrade.gov.au/Doing-business-in-the-Netherlands/default.aspx Itim. (n.d.). Geert Hofstede. Retrieved May 21, 2012, from Geert Hofstede: http://geert-hofstede.com/ John Daly, S. S. (2004). Nursing Leadership. Retrieved May 21, 2012, from Google Books: http://books.google.nl/books?id=TrN3ZS0CNQcC&pg=PA28&lpg=PA28&dq=Trompenaars+Australia&source=bl&ots=mrfFE84Iuj&sig=Tqy2bxÃ¢â¬âeE6UhcfvYTqI7uKuNFc&hl=nl&sa=X&ei=O267T7XBEoWP-wbvpqjUDA&ved=0CGIQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Trompenaars%20Australia&f=false Meehan, C. L. (2012). Flat Vs. Hierarchical Organizational Structure. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from Small Business: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/flat-vs-hierarchical-organizational-structure-724.html Mindtools. (n.d.). The Seven Dimensions of Culture. Retrieved May 21, 2012, from Mindtools: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/seven-dimensions.htm Sagepub. (2006, July 13). Dimens ions of Culture. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from Sagepub : http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/11711_Chapter7.pdf Books Schemerhorn, J. R. (2010). Introduction to Management 10th edition. View as multi-pages